Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 12, Issue 7, pp 2531–2539 | Cite as

Room-temperature synthesis of gold nanoparticles and nanoplates using Shewanella algae cell extract

  • Takashi Ogi
  • Norizoh Saitoh
  • Toshiyuki Nomura
  • Yasuhiro Konishi
Research Paper


Biosynthesis of spherical gold nanoparticles and gold nanoplates was achieved at room temperature and pH 2.8 when cell extract from the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella algae was used as both a reducing and shape-controlling agent. Cell extract, prepared by sonicating a suspension of S. algae cells, was capable of reducing 1 mol/m3 aqueous AuCl4 ions into elemental gold within 10 min when H2 gas was provided as an electron donor. The time interval lapsed since the beginning of the bioreductive reaction was found to be an important factor in controlling the morphology of biogenic gold nanoparticles. After 1 h, there was a large population of well-dispersed, spherical gold nanoparticles with a mean size of 9.6 nm. Gold nanoplates with an edge length of 100 nm appeared after 6 h, and 60% of the total nanoparticle population was due to gold nanoplates with an edge length of 100–200 nm after 24 h. The yield of gold nanoplates prepared with S. algae extract was four times higher than that prepared with resting cells of S. algae. The resulting biogenic gold nanoparticle suspensions showed a large variation in color, ranging from pale pink to purple due to changes in nanoparticle morphology.


Biosynthesis Metal nanoparticles Shape controlling Green process Nanobiotechnology 



This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (20360411) from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Japan. We also thank Ms. Eri Kitahata from the Toray Research Center Inc., Shiga, Japan, for their assistance with TEM observations.


  1. Burda C, Chen XB, Narayanan R, El-Sayed MA (2005) Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes. Chem Rev 105:1025–1102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chandran SP, Chaudhary M, Pasricha R, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2006) Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant extract. Biotechnol Prog 22:577–583CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Chu HC, Kuo CH, Huang MH (2006) Thermal aqueous solution approach for the synthesis of triangular and hexagonal gold nanoplates with three different size ranges. Inorg Chem 45:808–813CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Dos Santos Jr DS, Alvarez-Puebla RA, Oliveira ON Jr, Aroca RF (2005) Controlling the size and shape of gold nanoparticles in fulvic acid colloidal solutions and their optical characterization using SERS. J Mater Chem 15:3045–3049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. El-Sayed MA (2001) Some interesting properties of metals confined in time and nanometer space of different shapes. Accounts Chem Res 34:257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gardea-Torresdey JL, Tiemann KJ, Gamez G, Dokken K, Tehuacanero S, José-Yacamán M (1999) Gold nanoparticles obtained by bio-precipitation from gold (III) solutions. J Nanopart Res 1:397–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gardea-Torresdey JL, Parsons JG, Gomez E, Peralta-Videa J, Troiani HE, Santiago P, Yacaman MJ (2002) Formation and growth of Au nanoparticles inside live Alfalfa plants. Nano Lett 2:397–401CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. He S, Guo Z, Zhang Y, Zhang S, Wang J, Gu N (2007) Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using the bacteria Rhodopseudomonas capsulata. Mater Lett 61:3984–3987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jiang P, Zhou JJ, Li R, Gao Y, Sun TL, Zhao XW, Xiang YJ, Xie SS (2006) PVP-capped twinned gold plates from nanometer to micrometer. J Nanopart Res 8:927–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kan CX, Zhu XG, Wang GH (2006) Single-crystalline gold microplates: Synthesis, characterization, and thermal stability. J Phys Chem B 110:4651–4656CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kashefi K, Tor JM, Nevin KP, Lovley DR (2001) Reductive precipitation of gold by dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing Bacteria and Archaea. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:3275–3279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim F, Connor S, Song H, Kuykendall T, Yang PD (2004) Platonic gold nanocrystals. Angew Chem-Int Edit 43:3673–3677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Klaus T, Joerger R, Olsson E, Granqvist CG (1999) Silver-based crystalline nanoparticles, microbially fabricated. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:13611–13614CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Konishi Y, Tsukiyama T, Ohno K, Saitoh N, Nomura T, Nagamine S (2006) Intracellular recovery of gold by microbial reduction of AuCl4 ions using the anaerobic bacterium Shewanella algae. Hydrometallurgy 81:24–29Google Scholar
  15. Konishi Y, Ohno K, Saitoh N, Nomura T, Nagamine S, Hishida H, Takahashi Y, Uruga T (2007a) Bioreductive deposition of platinum nanoparticles on the bacterium Shewanella algae. J Biotechnol 128:648–653CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Konishi Y, Tsukiyama T, Tachimi T, Saitoh N, Nomura T, Nagamine S (2007b) Microbial deposition of gold nanoparticles by the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella algae. Electrochim Acta 53:186–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu B, Xie J, Lee JY, Ting YP, Chen JP (2005) Optimization of high-yield biological synthesis of single-crystalline gold nanoplates. J Phys Chem B 109:15256–15263CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Liz-Marzan LM (2006) Tailoring surface plasmons through the morphology and assembly of metal nanoparticles. Langmuir 22:32–41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lloyd JR, Yong P, Macaskie LE (1998) Enzymatic recovery of elemental palladium by using sulfate-reducing bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:4607–4609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Millstone JE, Park S, Shuford KL, Qin LD, Schatz GC, Mirkin CA (2005) Observation of a quadrupole plasmon mode for a colloidal solution of gold nanoprisms. J Am Chem Soc 127:5312–5313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Mohanpuria P, Rana NK, Yadav SK (2008) Biosynthesis of nanoparticles: technological concepts and future applications. J Nanopart Res 10:507–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mukherjee P, Ahmad A, Mandal D, Senapati SR, Khan MI, Ramani R, Parischa R, Ajayakumar PV, Alam M, Sastry M, Kumar R (2001) Bioreduction of AuCl ions by the fungus, Verticillium sp. and surface trapping of the gold nanoparticles formed. Angew Chem Int Edit 40:3585–3588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nie SM, Emery SR (1997) Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Science 275:1102–1106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Sau TK, Murphy CJ (2004) Room temperature, high-yield synthesis of multiple shapes of gold nanoparticles in aqueous solution. J Am Chem Soc 126:8648–8649CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Shankar SS, Rai A, Ankamwar B, Singh A, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2004) Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms. Nat Mater 3:482–488CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Shankar SS, Rai A, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2005) Shape-controlled synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. Chem Mater 17:566–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sun YG, Xia YN (2002) Shape-controlled synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. Science 298:2176–2179CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang ZL (2000) Transmission electron microscopy of shape-controlled nanocrystals and their assemblies. J Phys Chem B 104:1153–1175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xie JP, Lee JY, Wang DIC, Ting YP (2007) Identification of active biomolecules in the high-yield synthesis of single-crystalline gold nanoplates in algal solutions. Small 3:672–682CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang JH, Liu HY, Wang ZL, Ming NB (2007) Shape-selective synthesis of gold nanoparticles with controlled sizes, shapes, and plasmon Resonances. Adv Funct Mater 17:3295–3303CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takashi Ogi
    • 1
  • Norizoh Saitoh
    • 1
  • Toshiyuki Nomura
    • 1
  • Yasuhiro Konishi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringOsaka Prefecture UniversityOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations