Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 12, Issue 7, pp 2445–2456 | Cite as

Sonochemical fabrication of morpho-genetic TiO2 with hierarchical structures for photocatalyst

  • Shenmin ZhuEmail author
  • Di Zhang
  • Zhixin Chen
  • Gang Zhou
  • Haibo Jiang
  • Jinlong Li
Research Paper


Titanium oxides (TiO2) with hierarchical structures have been successfully replicated from biotemplate using a sonochemical method. The bio-templates, cedarwoods, were irradiated under ultrasonic waves in TiCl4 solutions and then calcined at temperatures between 450 and 600 °C. The fine replications of the biotemplates in TiO2 down to nanometer’s level were verified using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activities were assessed by measuring the percentage degradation of methylene blue using UV–vis spectroscopy. The calcination temperature has a strong effect on the structural replication and photocatalytic activity of the replicas. It appears that the calcination temperature of 450 °C results in the best structural replication with the highest surface area of 54.8 m2 g−1, and thus has the best photocatalytic properties. This method provides a simple, efficient, and versatile technique for fabricating TiO2 with hierarchical structures, and it has the potential to be applied to other systems for producing functional hierarchical materials for chemical sensor and nanodevices.


Sonochemistry Titania Hierarchical structures Photocatalyst Porous nanomaterial Nanomanufacturing 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of this research by the National Science Foundation of China (No. 50573013, 50772067), Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, Shanghai Science and Technology Committee (06PJ14063, 07DJ14001), and Sino-French Project of MOST of China (No. 2009DFA52410). We also thank SJTU Instrument Analysis Center for the measurements.

Supplementary material

11051_2009_9807_MOESM1_ESM.doc (490 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 489 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shenmin Zhu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Di Zhang
    • 1
  • Zhixin Chen
    • 2
  • Gang Zhou
    • 1
  • Haibo Jiang
    • 1
  • Jinlong Li
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix CompositesShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.The Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

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