Newer nanoparticles in hyperthermia treatment and thermometry
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Heating tumors by nanoparticles and resistance in hypoxic tumor cells to a high temperature is emerging as an effective tool in therapeutic oncology as nanomedicine tool. The art of imaging temperature in a tumor at various locations is emerging as the selective approach of hyperthermia to monitor temperature and treat the tumor. However, thermometry and tumor cell interaction with nanoparticles may monitor and evaluate the tumor cell survival after exposure to high physiological temperatures. The application of 10–100 nanometer sized nanoparticles in tumor hyperthermia has emerged as an effective monitoring tool as magnetic resonance (MR) thermal mapping. The temperature and nanoparticle magnetic moment relationship is specific. Furthermore, there are two main issues that are unsolved as of yet. First issue is the relationship of tumor energy changes due to tumor magnetization; linear attenuation after magnetic field and X-ray exposure with tissue temperature increase. The second issue is the undefined behavior of the nanoparticle inside the tumor as diamagnetic or paramagnetic can be therapeutic and it depends on the tumor tissue temperature. In vivo imaging such as MR thermometry mapping of different hypoxic tumor locations solves these issues to some extent. The art of the nanoparticle-induced hyperthermia does have a great impact on public health as alternative therapeutic oncology.