Advertisement

Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 679–689 | Cite as

Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles: application to textiles as UV-absorbers

  • Alessio Becheri
  • Maximilian Dürr
  • Pierandrea Lo Nostro
  • Piero Baglioni
Research Paper

Abstract

We report the synthesis and characterization of nanosized zinc oxide particles and their application on cotton and wool fabrics for UV shielding. The nanoparticles were produced in different conditions of temperature (90 or 150 °C) and reacting medium (water or 1,2-ethanediol). A high temperature was necessary to obtain small monodispersed particles. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) were used to characterize the nanoparticles composition, their shape, size and crystallinity. The specific surface area of the dry powders was also determined. ZnO nanoparticles were then applied to cotton and wool samples to impart sunscreen activity to the treated textiles. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed through UV–Vis spectrophotometry and the calculation of the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF). Physical tests (tensile strength and elongation) were performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with ZnO nanoparticles.

Keywords

Zinc oxide Nanoparticle(s) Textile UV UPF Sunscreen Nanocomposites Dispersions 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors greatly acknowledge partial financial support from CSGI (Florence, Italy) and MIUR (PRIN-2003, Rome, Italy).

References

  1. Algaba IM, Pepió M, Riva A (2007) Modelization of the influence of the treatment with two optical brighteners on the ultraviolet protection factor of cellulosic fabrics. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:2677–2682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambrosi M, Dei L, Giorgi R, Neto C, Baglioni P (2001) Colloidal particles of Ca(OH)2: properties and applications to restoration of frescoes. Langmuir 17:4251–4255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnold MS, Avouris P, Pan ZW, Wang ZL (2003) Field-Effect transistors based on single semiconducting oxide nanobelts. J Phys Chem B 107:659–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baglioni P, Dei L, Fratoni L, Lo Nostro P, Moroni M (2003) Preparation of nano- and micro-particles of group II and transition metals oxides and hydroxides and their use in the ceramic, textile and paper industries. Patent WO 2003082742Google Scholar
  5. Bednarska K, Wachowicz B, Buczynski A (2000) UV-B-induced generation of free radicals in blood platelets. J Photochem Photobiol B: Biology 55:109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Behnajady MA, Modirshahla N, Hamzavi R (2006) Kinetic study on photocatalytic degradation of C.I. acid yellow 23 by ZnO photocatalyst. J Hazardous Mat 133:226–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Daoud WA, Xin JH (2004) Low temperature sol-gel processed photocatalytic titania coating. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 29:25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Durán N, Marcato PD, De Souza GIH, Alves OL, Esposito E (2007) Antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles produced by fungal process on textile fabrics and their effluent treatment. J Biomed Nanotechnol 3:203–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fei B, Deng Z, Xin JH, Zhang Y, Pang G (2006) Room temperature synthesis of rutile nanorods and their applications on cloth. Nanotechnology 17:1927–1931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gambichler T, Avermaete A, Bader A, Altmeyer P, Hoffmann K (2001) Ultraviolet protection by summer textiles. Ultraviolet transmission measurements verified by determination of the minimal erythema dose with solar-simulated radiation. Br J Dermatol 144:484–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gambichler T, Hatch KL, Avermaete A, Altmeyer P, Hoffmann K (2002) Influence of wetness on the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) of textiles: in vitro and in vivo measurements. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 18:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Guo L, Yang S, Yang C, Yu P, Wang J, Ge W, Wong GKL (2000) Synthesis and characterization of poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-modified zinc oxide nanoparticles. Chem Mater 12:2268–2274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jenkins R, Snyder RL (1996) Introduction to X-ray powder diffractometry. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Kwon YJ, Kim KH, Lim CS, Shim KB (2002) Characterization of ZnO nanopowders synthesized by the polymerized complex method via an organochemical route. J Ceramic Proc Res 3:146–149Google Scholar
  15. Lee HJ, Yeo SY, Jeong SH (2003) Antibacterial effect of nanosized silver colloidal solution on textile fabrics. J Mater Sci 38:2199–2204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li YQ, Fu SY, Mai YM (2006) Preparation and characterization of transparent ZnO/epoxy nanocomposites with high-UV shielding efficiency. Polymer 47:2127–2132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liebler DC (2006) The poisons within: application of toxicity mechanisms to fundamental disease processes. Chem Res Toxicol 19:610–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liufu S, Xiao H, Li Y (2004) Investigation of PEG adsorption on the surface of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Powder Technol 145:20–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lu H, Fei B, Xin JH, Wang RH, Li L (2006) Fabrication of UV-blocking nanohybrid coating via miniemulsion polymerization. J Colloid Interface Sci 300:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Moroni M, Borrini D, Calamai L, Dei L (2005) Ceramic nanomaterials from aqueous and 1,2-ethanediol supersaturated solutions at high temperature. J Colloid Interface Sci 286:543–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/National Weather Service, Climate Prediction Center web site: http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/stratosphere/uv_index/gif_files/spectrum.gif. Cited 16 July 2007
  22. Pan ZW, Dai ZR, Wang ZL (2001) Nanobelts of semiconducting oxides. Science 291:1947–1949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Perez-Maqueda LA, Wang L, Matijevic E (1998) Nanosize indium hydroxide by peptization of colloidal precipitates. Langmuir 14:4397–4401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Qi K, Chen X, Liu Y, Xin JH, Mak CL, Daoud WA (2007) Facile preparation of anatase/SiO2 spherical nanocomposites and their application in self cleaning textiles. J Mater Chem 17:3504–3508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Riva A, Algaba IM, Pepió M (2006) Action of a finishing product in the improvement of the ultraviolet protection provided by cotton fabrics. Modelisation of the effect. Cellulose 13:697–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Salvadori B, Dei L (2001) Synthesis of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles from diols. Langmuir 17:2371–2374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sato H, Ikeya M (2004) Organic molecules and nanoparticles in inorganic crystals: vitamin C in CaCO3 as an ultraviolet absorber. J Appl Phys 95:3031–3036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sawai J (2003) Quantitative evaluation of antibacterial activities of metallic oxide powders (ZnO, MgO and CaO) by conductimetric assay. J Microbiol Methods 54:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Scalia S, Tursilli R, Bianchi A, Lo Nostro P, Bocci E, Ridi F, Baglioni P (2006) Incorporation of the sunscreen agent, octyl methocycinnamate in a cellulosic fabric grafted with β-cyclodextrin. Int J Pharm 308:155–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shvalagin VV, Stroyuk AL, Kuchmii SYa (2007) Photochemical synthesis of ZnO/Ag nanocomposites. J Nanopart Res 9:427–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Takeshita K, Chi C, Hirata H, Ono M, Ozawa T (2006) In vivo generation of free radicals in the skin of live mice under ultraviolet light, measured by L-band EPR spectroscopy. Free Radic Biol Med 40:876–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tang E, Cheng G, Ma X (2006a) Preparation of nano-ZnO/PMMA composite particles via grafting of the copolymer onto the surface of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Powder Technol 161:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tang E, Cheng G, Ma X, Pang X, Zhao Q (2006b) Surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticle by PMAA and its dispersion in aqueous system. Appl Surf Sci 252:5227–5232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tang E, Cheng G, Pang X, Ma X, Xing F (2006c) Synthesis of nano-ZnO/poly(methylmethacrylate) composite microsphere through emulsion polymerization and its UV-shielding property. Colloid Polym Sci 284:422–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Turkoglu M, Yener S (1997) Design and in vivo evaluation of ultrafine inorganic-oxide-containing-sunscreen formulations. Int J Cosmet Sci 19:193–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. UNI EN ISO 13934-1:1999—Tensile properties of fabrics. Part 1: determination of maximum force and elongation at maximum force using the strip methodGoogle Scholar
  37. UNI EN ISO 26330:1996—Domestic washing and drying procedures for textile testingGoogle Scholar
  38. Vigneshwaran N, Kumar S, Kathe AA, Varadarajan PV, Prasad V (2006) Functional finishing of cotton fabrics using zinc oxide-soluble starch nanocomposites. Nanotechnology 17:5087–5095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang Y, Ma C, Sun X, Li H (2002) Preparation of nanocrystalline metal oxide powders with the surfactant-mediated method. Inorg Chem Comm 5:751–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wang RH, Xin JH, Tao XM, Daoud WA (2004) ZnO nanorods grown on cotton fabrics at low temperature. Chem Phys Lett 398:250–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang RH, Xin JH, Tao XM (2005) UV-blocking property of dumbbell-shaped ZnO crystallites on cotton fabrics. Inorg Chem 44:3926–3930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Xin JH, Daoud WA, Kong YY (2004) A new approach to UV-blocking treatment for cotton fabrics. Text Res J 74:97–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Xiong M, Gu G, You B, Wu L (2003) Preparation and characterization of poly(styrene butylacrylate) latex/nano-ZnO nanocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci 90:1923–1931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yadav A, Prasad V, Kathe AA, Raj S, Yadav D, Sundaramoorthy C, Vigneshwaran N (2006) Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles. Bull Mater Sci 29:641–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessio Becheri
    • 1
  • Maximilian Dürr
    • 1
  • Pierandrea Lo Nostro
    • 1
  • Piero Baglioni
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and CSGIUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations