Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 697–700 | Cite as

Pick your carats: nanoparticles of gold–silver–copper alloy produced in vivo

  • R. G. HaverkampEmail author
  • A. T. Marshall
  • D. van Agterveld
Brief Communication


Engineered gold nanoparticle catalysts containing a mixture of metals enable enhanced specificity and reactivity. We report the synthesis by plants of mixed metal nanoparticles suggesting the possibility of using plants to produce catalysts of specific composition, perhaps even those difficult to synthesise by traditional methods. The nanoparticles contain Au, Ag and Cu as an alloy. The structure and composition are confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX).


catalysis gold silver copper nanoparticles phytomining phytoremediation alloy TEM biosynthesis in vivo in plants 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This study was supported in part by the US Airforce grant AOARD054068 and by The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology.


  1. Akita T., M. Okumura, K. Tanaka, M. Kohyama, M. Haruta, 2005. J. Mater. Sci. 40, 3101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson C.W.N., R.R. Brooks, R.B. Stewart, R. Simcock, 1998. Nature (London, UK) 395, 553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson C.W.N., R.R. Brooks, R.B. Stewart, R. Simcock, 1999. Gold Bull. 32, 48Google Scholar
  4. Andreeva D., 2002. Gold Bull. 35, 82Google Scholar
  5. Bianchi C.L., P. Canton, N. Dimitratos, F. Porta, L. Prati, 2005. Catal. Today 102–103, 203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Comotti M., C. Della Pina, M. Rossi, 2006. J. Mol. Catal., A Chem. 251, 89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dimitratos N., F. Porta, L. Prati, A. Villa, 2005. Catal. Lett. 99, 185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Frenkel A.I., V.Sh. Machavariani, A. Rubshtein, Y. Rosenberg, A. Voronel, E.A Stern, 2000. Phys. Rev. B. 62, 9364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gardea-Torresdey J., J. Parsons, E. Gomez, J. Peralta-Videa, H. Troiani, P. Santiago, M. Yacaman, 2002. Nano Lett. 2, 397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gardea-Torresdey J.L., E. Rodriguez, J.G. Parsons, J.R. Peralta-Videa, G. Meitzner, G. Cruz-Jimenez, 2005. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 382, 347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gericke M., A. Pinches, 2006. Gold Bull. 39, 22Google Scholar
  12. Grisel R., K.J. Weststrate, A. Gluhoi, B.E. Nieuwenhuys, 2002. Gold Bull. 35, 39Google Scholar
  13. Hutchings G.J., M. Haruta, 2005. Appl. Catal., A. 291, 2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kariuki N.N., J. Luo, M.M. Maye, S.A. Hassan, T. Menard, H.R. Naslund, Y. Lin, C. Wang, M.H. Engelhard, C.-J. Zhong, 2004 Langmuir 20, 11240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Klaus T., R. Joerger, E. Olsson, C.-G. Granqvist, 1999. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 13611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lamb A.E., C.W.N. Anderson, R.G. Haverkamp, 2001a. Chem. N. Z. 65, 31Google Scholar
  17. Lamb A.E., C.W.N. Anderson, R.G. Haverkamp, 2001b. Chem. N. Z. 65, 34Google Scholar
  18. Liu J.H., A.Q. Wang, Y.S. Chi, H.P. Lin, C.Y Mou, 2005. J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu J., Yi. Lu, 2004. J. Fluorescence 14, 343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mukherjee P., S. Senapati, D. Mandal, A. Ahmad, M.I. Khan, R. Kumar, M. Sastry, 2002 ChemBioChem 3, 461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Paciotti G.F., L. Myer, D. Weinreich, D. Goia, N. Pavel, R.E. McLaughlin, L. Tamarkin, 2004 Drug Delivery 11, 169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Puckett S.D., J.A. Heuser, J.D. Keith, W.U. Spendel, G.E. Pacey, 2005 Talanta 66, 1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Reeves R.D. & A.J.M. Baker, 2000. Metal-accumulating plants. In Raskin I. and Ensley B.D.eds. Phytoremediation of Toxic Metals, Using Plants to Clean up the Environment , p. 193Google Scholar
  24. Somorjai G.A., 1994. Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis. New York, WileyGoogle Scholar
  25. Toshima N., T. Yonezawa, 1998 New J. Chem. 22, 1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yanez-Sedeno P., J.M. Pingarron, 2005 Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 382, 884CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. Haverkamp
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. T. Marshall
    • 1
  • D. van Agterveld
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Technology and EngineeringMassey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Chemicals Analytics and Physics, Microstructure Analysis and Atomic SpectrometryAkzo Nobel Research and Technology ChemicalsArnhemThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations