Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 7, Issue 4–5, pp 331–342

Nanomaterials and Water Purification: Opportunities and Challenges

Perspectives

Abstract

Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality could be resolved or greatly ameliorated using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes and nanoparticle enhanced filtration among other products and processes resulting from the development of nanotechnology. Innovations in the development of novel technologies to desalinate water are among the most exciting and promising. Additionally, nanotechnology-derived products that reduce the concentrations of toxic compounds to sub-ppb levels can assist in the attainment of water quality standards and health advisories. This article gives an overview of the use of nanomaterials in water purification. We highlight recent advances on the development of novel nanoscale materials and processes for treatment of surface water, groundwater and industrial wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, radionuclides, organic and inorganic solutes, bacteria and viruses. In addition, we discuss some challenges associated with the development of cost effective and environmentally acceptable functional nanomaterials for water purification.

Keywords

nanomaterials water quality water purification desalination nanosorbents nanocatalysts nanofiltration carbon nanotubes dendrimers membranes nanoparticles nanotechnology water and wastewater 

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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Center for Environmental Research, Office of Research and DevelopmentUS Environmental Protection AgencyWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Materials and Process Simulation Center, Beckman Institute 139-74California Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringHoward UniversityWashingtonUSA

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