Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 7, Issue 4–5, pp 343–376 | Cite as

Longitudinal Nanotechnology Development (1991--2002): National Science Foundation Funding and its Impact on Patents

  • Zan Huang
  • Hsinchun Chen
  • Lijun Yan
  • Mihail C. Roco


Nanotechnology holds the promise to revolutionize a wide range of products, processes and applications. It is recognized by over sixty countries as critical for their development at the beginning of the 21st century. A significant public investment of over $1 billion annually is devoted to nanotechnology research in the United States. This paper provides an analysis of the National Science Foundation (NSF) funding of nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) and its relationship to the innovation as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patent data. Using a combination of bibliometric analysis and visualization tools, we have identified several general trends, the key players, and the evolution of technology topics in the NSF funding and commercial patenting activities. This study documents the rapid growth of innovation in the field of nanotechnology and its correlation to funding. Statistical analysis shows that the NSF-funded researchers and their patents have higher impact factors than other private and publicly funded reference groups. This suggests the importance of fundamental research on nanotechnology development. The number of cites per NSF-funded inventor is about 10 as compared to 2 for all inventors of NSE-related patents recorded at USPTO, and the corresponding Authority Score is 20 as compared to 1.8.

Key words

paper citations public funding of research patent analysis information visualization self-organizing maps nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) nanotechnology research and development (R&D) technological innovation 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zan Huang
    • 1
  • Hsinchun Chen
    • 1
  • Lijun Yan
    • 1
  • Mihail C. Roco
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Management Information Systems, Artificial Intelligence Lab, Eller College of ManagementThe University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.National Science FoundationArlingtonUSA

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