Journal of Nanoparticle Research

, Volume 7, Issue 4–5, pp 499–506

Perchlorate Reduction by Nanoscale Iron Particles

Article

Abstract

We report herein the near complete reduction of perchlorate (ClO \(_{4}^{-}\)) to chloride by nanoscale iron particles. The nanoparticles also reduce chlorate (ClO \(_{3}^-\)), chlorite (ClO \(_{2}^-\)) and hypochlorite (ClO \(^{-}\)) to chloride. No reaction was observed with microscale iron powder under identical conditions. The temperature sensitivity of the perchlorate-nanoparticle reaction is evidenced by progressively increasing rate constant values of 0.013, 0.10, 0.64 and 1.52 mg perchlorate per g nanoparticles per hour (mg-g-1-hr-1), respectively, at temperatures of 25, 40, 60 and 75°C. The activation energy of perchlorate-iron reaction was calculated to be 79.02 ± 7.75 kJ/mole. Despite favorable thermodynamics, the relatively large activation energy for this reaction suggests that perchlorate reduction is limited by the slow kinetics. The nanoscale iron particles may represent a potential treatment method for perchlorate-contaminated water.

Keywords

perchlorate nanoscale iron particles reduction activation energy kinetics colloids water quality 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aken, B.V., Schnoor, J.L. 2002Evidence of Perchlorate (ClO4) Reduction in Plant Tissues (Poplar Tree) Using Radio-Labeled 36ClO4Environ. Sci. Technol.,3627832788Google Scholar
  2. California Department of Health Services. 1997. Perchlorate in␣California Drinking WaterGoogle Scholar
  3. Coates, J.D., Bruce, R.A., Haddock, J.D. 1998Anoxic bioremediation of hydrocarbonsNature396730CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cotton, F.A., Wilkinson, G., Murillo, C.A., Bochumann, M. 1999Advanced Inorganic Chemistry6WileyNew York560563Google Scholar
  5. Duke, F.R., Quinney, P.R. 1954The kinetics of the reduction of perchlorate ion by Ti(III) in dilute solutionJ. Am. Chem. Soc.7638003803Google Scholar
  6. Elliott, D.W., Zhang, W. 2001Field assessment of nanoscale bimetallic particles for groundwater treatmentEnviron. Sci. Technol.3549224926CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Espenson J., 1997. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Biological and Chemical Reduction of Perchlorate and Chlorate. Cincinnati, OH: US EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory.Google Scholar
  8. King, W.R., Garner, C.S. 1954Kinetics of the oxidation of vanadium(II) and vanadium(III) ions by perchlorateJ. Phys. Chem.582933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kallen, T.W., Earley, J.E. 1971Reduction of Perchlorate in by aquoruthenium(II)Inorg. Chem.1011521155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lien, H., Zhang, W. 1999Transformation of chlorinated methanes by nanoscale iron particlesJ. Environ. Eng.12510421047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lien, H. 2000Nanoscale bimetallic particles for dehalogenation of halogenated aliphatic compoundsLehigh UniversityBethlehem, PADoctoral DissertationGoogle Scholar
  12. Lien, H., Zhang, W. 2005Reactions of Chlorinated Methanes with Nanoscale Metal ParticlesJ. of Environ. Eng.131410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Logan, E.B. 2001Assessing the outlook for perchlorate remediationEnviron. Eng.35482A487AGoogle Scholar
  14. Moore, A.G., De Leon, C.H., Young, T.M. 2003Rate and extent of aqueous perchlorate removal by iron surfaceEnviron. Sci. Technol.3731893198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Nzengung, V.A., Wang, Ch-H., Harvey, G. 1999Plant-Mediated transformation of perchlorate into chlorideEnviron. Sci. Technol.3314701478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Stokstad, E. 2005Debate Continues Over Safety of Water Spiked With Rocket FuelScience.307507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Su, Ch-M., Puls, R.W. 1999Kinetics of trichloroethene reduction by zero-valent iron and Tin: pretreatment of effect, apparent activation energy, and intermediate productsEnviron. Sci. Technol.33163168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1998. Drinking Water Contaminant List. EPA Document No. 815-F-98–002; GPO: Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  19. Urbansky, E.T., Schock, M.R. 1999Issues in managing the risks associated with perchlorate in drinking waterJ. Environ. Manage.567995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Urbansky, E.T. 2000Perchlorate in the EnvironmentKluwer Academic/Plenum PublishersNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Wang, C., Zhang, W. 1997Synthesis nanoscale iron particles for rapid and complete dechlorination of TCE and PCBsEnviron. Sci. Technol.3121542156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zhang, W., Wang, C., Lien, H. 1998Treatment of chlorinated organic contaminants with nanoscale bimetallic particlesCatal. Today.40387395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zhang, W. 2003Nanoscale Iron Particles for Environmental Remediation: An OverviewJ. of Nanoparticle Research5323332CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringLehigh UniversityPAUSA

Personalised recommendations