Natural Language & Linguistic Theory

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 1021–1066 | Cite as

Relative clause extraposition and prosody in German

  • Claudia Poschmann
  • Michael Wagner


Whether a relative clause (RC) can be extraposed has been argued to depend both on contextual focus and on whether an RC is restrictive or appositive. However, no previous study has looked at the interaction between these two factors in restricting extraposition, despite the fact that different types of relative clauses are generally taken to differ in how they relate to focus. Furthermore, previous studies have not looked at the role of prosody in accounting for the effect of focus on extraposition, and have found contradictory results with respect to the prosodic differences between appositive and restrictive relative clauses. This paper presents the results of a production experiment on German which crosses the location of focus and the type of RC in order to explore how they interact in affecting prosody and extraposition.


Extraposition Relative clauses Appositives Prosody Focus 



Thanks for helpful comments to Markus Bader, Caroline Féry, and Ede Zimmermann, to three anonymous reviewers, and the editor, Marcel den Dikken. Thanks to Caroline Reinert and Julia Biskupek for help with running the experiment, and Caroline Reinert, Felix Schumann und Anna Roth for annotating the data. This research was supported by an Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship and SSHRC grant 410-2011-1062 on Relative Prosodic Boundary Strength to M.W.; it was also supported by funding to C.P. from DFG Research Group 1783 “Relative Clauses”.

Supplementary material

11049_2015_9314_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (81 kb)
(PDF 81 kB)


  1. Altmann, Hans. 1981. Formen der ‘Herausstellung’ im Deutschen: Rechtsversetzung, Linksversetzung, freies Thema und verwandte Konstruktionen. Tübingen: Niemeyer. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AnderBois, Scott, Adrian Brasoveanu, and Robert Henderson. 2013. At-issue proposals and appositive impositions in discourse. Journal of Semantics. doi: 10.1093/jos/fft014. Google Scholar
  3. Anttila, Arto, Matthew Adams, and Michael Speriosu. 2010. The role of prosody in the English dative alternation. Language and Cognitive Processes 25(7–9): 946–981. doi: 10.1080/01690960903525481. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold, D. 2007. Non-restrictive relatives are not orphans. Journal of Linguistics 43(02): 271–309. doi: 10.1017/S0022226707004586. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnold, Jennifer E., Thomas Wasow, Anthony Losongco, and Ryan Ginstrom. 2000. Heaviness vs. newness: The effects of structural complexity on discourse status on constituent ordering. Language 76: 28–55. doi: 10.1353/lan.2000.0045. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asher, Nicholas, and Alex Lascarides. 2003. Logics of conversation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
  7. Auran, Cyril, and Rudy Loock. 2011. The prosody of discourse functions: The case of appositive relative clauses in spoken British English. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory 7: 181–201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baayen, R. Harald, Doug J. Davidson, and Douglas M. Bates. 2008. Mixed-effects modeling with crossed random effects for subjects and items. Journal of Memory and Language 59(4): 390–412. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2007.12.005. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bader, Markus. 2014a. Defining distance in language production. Ms. Goethe Universität Frankfurt. Google Scholar
  10. Bader, Markus. 2014b. How prosody constraints first-pass parsing during reading. Ms. Goethe Universität Frankfurt. Google Scholar
  11. Baltin, Mark R. to appear. Extraposition, the right roof constraint, result clauses, relative clause extraposition, and PP extraposition. In The syntax companion: An electronic encyclopaedia of case studies. The LingComp foundation. Google Scholar
  12. Bard, Ellen Gurman, Dan Robertson, and Antonella Sorace. 1996. Magnitude estimation of linguistic acceptability. Language 72(1): 32–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barr, Dale J, Roger Levy, Christoph Scheepers, and Harry J. Tily. 2013. Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language 68(3): 255–278. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2012.11.001. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bates, Douglas, Martin Maechler, Ben Bolker, and Steven Walker. 2014. lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. R package version 1.1–7. Accessed 6 September 2015.
  15. Behaghel, Otto. 1909. Beziehungen zwischen Umfang und Reihenfolge von Satzgliedern. Indogermanische Forschungen 25: 110–142. Google Scholar
  16. Birkner, Karin. 2008. Relativ(satz)konstruktionen im gesprochenen Deutsch: Syntaktische, prosodische, semantische und pragmatische aspekte. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bock, Kathryn J., and Willem Johannes Maria Levelt. 1994. Language production: Grammatical encoding. In Handbook of psycholinguistics, ed. Morton Ann Gernsbacher, 945–984. San Diego: Academic Press. Google Scholar
  18. Boersma, Paul, and David Weenink. 1996. PRAAT, a system for doing phonetics by computer. Report 132. Institute of Phonetic Sciences of the University of Amsterdam. Google Scholar
  19. Brandt, Margareta. 1990. Weiterführende Nebensätze. Zu ihrer Syntax, Semantik und Pragmatik. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell. Google Scholar
  20. Breen, Mara, Evelina Fedorenko, Michael Wagner, and Edward Gibson. 2010. Acoustic correlates of information structure. Language and Cognitive Processes 25(7): 1044–1098. doi: 10.1080/01690965.2010.504378. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Büring, Daniel. 1997. The meaning of topic and focus: The 59th street bridge accent. Routledge studies in German linguistics. London: Routledge. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chierchia, Ginet, and Sally McConnell-Ginet. 1990. Meaning and grammar. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  23. Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen. 2014. Analysis of ordinal data with cumulative link models—estimation with the R-package ordinal. Accessed 6 September 2015.
  24. Clark, Herbert H. 1973. The language-as-fixed-effect fallacy: A critique of language statistics in psychological research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 12(4): 335–359. doi: 10.1016/s0022-5371(73)80014-3. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Culicover, Peter, and Michael Rochemont. 1990. Extraposition and the complement principle. Linguistic Inquiry 21: 23–47. Google Scholar
  26. Culicover, Peter W., and Ray Jackendoff. 2005. Simpler syntax. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199271092.001.0001. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. De Vries, Mark. 2006. The syntax of appositive relativization: On specifying coordination, false free relatives, and promotion. Linguistic Inquiry 37(2): 229–270. doi: 10.1162/ling.2006.37.2.229. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dehé, Nicole. 2009. Clausal parentheticals, intonational phrasing, and prosodic theory. Journal of Linguistics 45: 569–615. doi: 10.1017/S002222670999003X. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dehé, Nicole. 2014. Parentheticals in spoken English: The syntax-prosody relation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Del Gobbo, Francesca. 2003. Appositives at the interface. PhD diss, University of California, Irvine. Google Scholar
  31. Downing, Bruce T. 1970. Syntactic structure and phonological phrasing in English. PhD diss, University of Texas at Austin. Google Scholar
  32. Ellermeier, Wolfgang, and Günther Faulhammer. 2000. Empirical evaluation of axioms fundamental to Stevens’s ratio-scaling approach: I. loudness production. Perception and Psychophysics 62(8): 1505–1511. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Emonds, Joseph E. 1970. Root and structure-preserving transformations. PhD diss, MIT. Google Scholar
  34. Emonds, Joseph E. 1976. A transformational approach to English syntax. New York: Academic Press. Google Scholar
  35. Emonds, Joseph E. 1979. Appositive relatives have no properties. Linguistic Inquiry 10(2): 211–243. Google Scholar
  36. Espinal, M. Teresa. 1991. The representation of disjunct constituents. Language 67(4): 726–762. doi: 10.2307/415075. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fabb, Nigel. 1990. The difference between English restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses. Journal of Linguistics 26: 57–78. doi: 10.1017/s0022226700014420. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Faber, David. 1987. The accentuation of intransitive sentences in English. Journal of Linguistics 23(2): 341–358. doi: 10.1017/s0022226700011300. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Féry, Caroline, and Fabian Schubö. 2013. Hierarchical prosodic structures in the intonation of syntactically recursive sentences. MS. Google Scholar
  40. Francis, Elaine. 2010. Grammatical weight and relative clause extraposition in English. Cognitive Linguistics 21(1): 35–74. doi: 10.1515/cogl.2010.002. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Garro, Luisa, and Frank Parker. 1982. Some suprasegmental characteristics of relative clauses in English. Journal of Phonetics 10: 149–161. Google Scholar
  42. Gibson, Edward. 1998. Linguistic complexity: Locality of syntactic dependencies. Cognition 68: 1–76. doi: 10.1016/s0010-0277(98)00034-1. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gibson, Edward. 2000. The dependency locality theory: A distance based theory of linguistic complexity. In Image, language, brain, eds. Yasushi Miyashita, Alec Marantz, and Wayne O’Neil, 95–126. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  44. Gibson, Edward, Timothy Desmet, Daniel Grodner, Duane Watson, and Kara Ko. 2005. Reading relative clauses in English. Cognitive Linguistics 16(2): 313–353. doi: 10.1515/cogl.2005.16.2.313. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Göbbel, Edward. 2012. Extraposition of relative clauses: Phonological solutions. Linga 136: 77–102. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2013.07.010. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gorman, Kyle, Jonathan Howell, and Michael Wagner. 2011. Prosodylab-aligner: A tool for forced alignment of laboratory speech. Acoustics Week in Canada. Canadian Acoustics 39(3): 192–193. Google Scholar
  47. Guéron, Jacqueline. 1980. On the syntax and semantics of PP extraposition. Linguistic Inquiry 11(4): 637–678. Google Scholar
  48. Haider, Hubert. 2010. The syntax of German. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/cbo9780511845314. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hawkins, John. 1994. A performance theory of order and constituency. Cambridge studies in linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
  50. Heim, Irene, and Angelika Kratzer. 1998. Semantics in generative grammar. Oxford: Blackwell. Google Scholar
  51. Hemforth, Barbara, Lars Konieczny, Harald Seelig, and Michael Walter. 2000. Case matching and relative clause attachment. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 29(1): 81–88. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hirschberg, Julia, and Cinzia Avesani. 1997. The role of prosody in disambiguating potentially ambiguous utterances. European Speech Communication Association (ESCA), Intonation, Athens. Google Scholar
  53. Hlavac, Marek. 2013. Stargazer: LaTeX code and ASCII text for well-formatted regression and summary statistics tables. R package version 4.5.3. Accessed 6 September 2015.
  54. Holler, Anke. 2005. Weiterführende Relativsätze. Empirische und theoretische Aspekte. Berlin: Akademie Verlag. Google Scholar
  55. Huck, Geoffrey J., and Younghee Na. 1990. Extraposition and focus. Language 66(1): 51–77. doi: 10.1353/lan.1990.0023. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Huddleston, Rodney, and Geoffrey K. Pullum. 2002. The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1515/zaa-2005-0209. Google Scholar
  57. Inaba, Jiro. 2007. Die Syntax der Satzkomplementierung: Zur Struktur des Nachfeldes im Deutschen. Studia grammatica 66. Berlin: Akademie Verlag. doi: 10.1524/9783050087290. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jaeger, T. Florian. 2010. Redundancy and reduction: Speakers manage syntactic information density. Cognitive Psychology 61(1): 23–62. doi: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2010.02.002. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kaland, Constantijn, Vincent J. van Heuven, et al. 2010. The structure-prosody interface of restrictive and appositive relative clauses in Dutch and German. In Speech Prosody, 100061–100064. Google Scholar
  60. Kathol, Andreas, and Carl Pollard. 1995. Extraposition via complex domain formation. In Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) 33, 174–180. doi: 10.3115/981658.981682. Google Scholar
  61. Kiss, Tibor. 2005. Semantic constraints on relative clause extraposition. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 23(2): 281–334. doi: 10.1007/s11049-003-1838-7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Koev, Todor. 2013. Apposition and the structure of discourse. PhD diss, Rutgers University. Google Scholar
  63. Konieczny, Lars. 2000. Locality and parsing complexity. Psycholinguistic Research 29: 627–645. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Konopka, Marek. 2006. Zur stellung der relativsätze. In Grammatische untersuchungen: Analysen und reflexionen: Gisela Zifonun zum 60. geburtstag, eds. Eva Breindl, Lutz Gunkel, and Bruno Strecke. Studien zur Deutschen Sprache 36, 141–159. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag. Google Scholar
  65. Kuznetsova, Alexandra, Per Bruun Brockhoff, and Rune Haubo Bojesen Christensen. 2013. lmertest: Tests for random and fixed effects for linear mixed effect models (lmer objects of lme4 package). R package version. Google Scholar
  66. Lee, Eun-Kyung, and Duane G. Watson. 2011. Effects of pitch accents in attachment ambiguity resolution. Language and Cognitive Processes 26(2): 262–297. doi: 10.1080/01690965.2010.491650. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lee, William Roland. 1956. English intonation: A new approach. Lingua 5: 345–371. doi: 10.1016/0024-3841(55)90028-0. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lenerz, Jürgen. 1977. Zur Abfolge nominaler Satzglieder im Deutschen. Studien zur Deutschen Grammatik 5. Tübingen: Gunter Narr. Google Scholar
  69. Levy, Roger, and Edward Gibson. 2013. Surprisal, the PDC, and the primary locus of processing difficulty in relative clauses. Frontiers in Psychology 4. Google Scholar
  70. Levy, Roger, Evelina Fedorenko, Mara Breen, and Edward Gibson. 2012. The processing of extraposed structures in English. Cognition 122(1): 12–36. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2011.07.012. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lewis, Richard L., and Shravan Vasishth. 2005. An activation-based model of sentence processing as skilled memory retrieval. Cognitive Science 29(3): 375–419. doi: 10.1207/s15516709cog0000_25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Loetscher, Andreas. 1972. Some problems concerning Standard German relative clauses. In The Chicago which hunt. Papers from the relative clause festival. A paravolume to papers from the eigth regional meeting. Google Scholar
  73. Maynell, Laurie A. 2008. Discourse constraints on extraposition from definite NP subjects in English. OSU Working Papers in Linguistics 58: 110–137. Google Scholar
  74. McCawley, James D. 1981. The syntax and semantics of English relative clauses. Lingua 53: 99–149. doi: 10.1016/0024-3841(81)90014-0. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McCawley, James D. 1982. Parentheticals and discontinuous constituent structure. Linguistic Inquiry 13(1): 91–106. Google Scholar
  76. McDonald, Janet L, Kathryn Bock, and Michael H Kelly. 1993. Word and world order: Semantic, phonological, and metrical determinants of serial position. Cognitive Psychology 25(2): 188–230. doi: 10.1006/cogp.1993.1005. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Motsch, Wolfgang. 1965. Untersuchungen zur apposition im Deutschen. Studia Grammatica V. Berlin. Google Scholar
  78. Nespor, Marina, and Irene Vogel. 1986. Prosodic phonology. Dordrecht: Foris. doi: 10.1515/9783110977790. Google Scholar
  79. Nouwen, Rick. 2007. On appositives and dynamic binding. Journal of Language and Computation 5(1): 87–102. doi: 10.1007/s11168-006-9019-6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pierrehumbert, Janet. 1980. The phonology and phonetics of English intonation. PhD diss, MIT. Google Scholar
  81. Potts, Christopher. 2005a. The logic of conventional implicatures. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273829.001.0001. Google Scholar
  82. Potts, Christopher. 2005b. Lexicalized intonational meaning. In Papers on Prosody, ed. Shigeto Kawahara. Vol. 30 of University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics, 129–146. Amherst: GLSA. Google Scholar
  83. Potts, Christopher. 2007. Conventional implicatures: A distinguished class of meanings. In The Oxford Handbook of Liguistic Interfaces, eds. G. Ramchand and C. Reiss, 475–502. London: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  84. Quine, Willard van Orman. 1960. Word and object. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  85. Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik. 1985. A comprehensive grammar of the English language. London: Longman. Google Scholar
  86. Riester, Arndt. 2009. Stress test for relative clauses. In Focus at the syntax-semantics interface, eds. Arndt Riester and Edgar Onea. Vol. 3 of Working papers of the SFB 732. Stuttgart: University of Stuttgart. Google Scholar
  87. Rochemont, Michael, and Peter Culicover. 1990. English focus constructions and the theory of grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1353/lan.1992.0065. Google Scholar
  88. Rochemont, Michael, and Peter Culicover. 1997. Deriving dependent right adjuncts in English. In Rightward movement, eds. Dorothee Beermann, David Le Blanc, and Henk van Riemsdijk, 279–300. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Roland, Douglas, Frederic Dick, and Jeffrey L. Elman. 2007. Frequency of basic English grammatical structures: A corpus analysis. Journal of Memory and Language 57(3): 348–379. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rooth, Mats. 1992. Ellipsis redundancy and reduction redundancy. In Stuttgart Ellipsis Workshop, eds. Steve Berman and Arild Hestvik. Arbeitspapiere des Sonderforschungsbereiches 340: Grundlangen für de Computerlinguistik. Tübingen: Universität Stuttgart. Google Scholar
  91. Rooth, Mats. 1996. Focus. In The handbook of contemporary semantic theory, ed. Shalom Lappin, 271–297. London: Blackwell. Chap. 10. Google Scholar
  92. Ross, John Robert. 1967. Constraints on variables in syntax. PhD diss, MIT. Google Scholar
  93. Safir, Ken. 1986. Relative clauses in a theory of binding and levels. Linguistic Inquiry 17(4): 663–689. Google Scholar
  94. Schafer, Amy, Juli Carter, Charles Clifton, and Lyn Frazier. 1996. Focus in relative clause construal. Language and Cognitive Processes 11(1–2): 135–164. doi: 10.1080/016909696387240. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schaffranietz, Brigitte. 1997. Zur Unterscheidung und Funktion von restriktiven und appositiven Relativsätzen des Deutschen. Linguistische Berichte. Google Scholar
  96. Schlenker, Philippe. 2009. Supplements without bidimensionalism. In Proceedings of the Amsterdam Colloquium. Google Scholar
  97. Schubö, Fabian, and Caroline Féry. 2015. Experimental investigations on the prosodic realization of restrictive and appositive relative clauses in German. Lingua 154: 65–86. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2014.11.006. Ms. Universität Frankfurt. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Selkirk, Elisabeth. 2005. Comments on intonational phrasing in English. In Prosodies: With special reference to Iberian, eds. Sonia Frota, Marina Cláudia Vigário, and Maria João Freitas. Phonetics and phonology, 11–58. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  99. Selkirk, Elisabeth O. 1984. Phonology and syntax. The relation between sound and structure. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  100. Sells, Peter. 1985. Restrictive and non-restrictive modification. Stanford University, CSLI Report 85 (28). Google Scholar
  101. Shannon, Thomas. 1992. Toward an adequate characterization of relative clause extraposition in modern German. In On Germanic linguistics. Issues and methods, eds. Irmengard Rauch, Gerald F. Carr, and Robert L. Kyes, 253–281. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  102. Smits, Roel J. C. 1989. Eurogrammar. The relative and cleft constructions of the Germanic and Romance languages. Dordrecht/Providence: Foris Publications. Google Scholar
  103. Sprouse, Jon. 2011. A test of the cognitive assumptions of magnitude estimation: Commutativity does not hold for acceptability judgments. Language 87(2): 274–288. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sternefeld, Wolfgang. 2008. Syntax. Eine morphologisch motivierte generative Beschreibung des Deutschen. Tübingen: Stauffenberg Verlag. Google Scholar
  105. Takami, Ken-Ichi. 1999. A functional constraint on extraposition from NP. In Function and structure, eds. Akio Kamio and Ken ichi Takami, 23–56. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Truckenbrodt, Hubert. 1994. Extraposition from NP and prosodic structure. In North East Linguistic Society (NELS) 25, 503–517. Google Scholar
  107. Truckenbrodt, Hubert. 1995. Phonological phrases: Their relation to syntax, focus, and prominence. PhD diss, MIT, Cambridge. Google Scholar
  108. Uszkoreit, Hans, and Thorsten Brants. 1998. Studien zur performanzorientierten linguistik: Aspekte der relativsatzextraposition im deutschen, CLAUS Report No. 99 1–14, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken. Google Scholar
  109. Vergnaud, Jean-Roger. 1974. French relative clauses. PhD diss, MIT. Google Scholar
  110. Wagner, Michael. 2005. Asymmetries in prosodic domain formation. In Perspectives on Phases 49, eds. Norvin Richards and Martha Mcginnis. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics, 329–367. Google Scholar
  111. Wagner, Michael. 2010. Prosody and recursion in coordinate structures and beyond. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 28(1): 183–237. doi: 10.1007/s11049-009-9086-0. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Walker, Heike. 2013. Constraints on relative clause extraposition in English. In Rightward movement in a comparative perspective, eds. Gerd Webelhuth, Manfred Sailer, and Heike Walker, 145–171. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/la.200.05wal. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Warren, Tessa, and Edward Gibson. 2002. The influence of referential processing on sentence complexity. Cognition 85(1): 79–112. doi: 10.1016/s0010-0277(02)00087-2. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wasow, Thomas. 1997. End-weight from the speaker’s perspective. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 26(3): 347–361. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wasow, Tom. 2003. Postverbal behavior. Stanford: CSLI. Google Scholar
  116. Watson, Duane G., and Edward Gibson. 2004. The relationship between intonational phrasing and syntactic structure in language production. Language and Cognitive Processes. doi: 10.1080/01690960444000070. Google Scholar
  117. Webelhuth, Gerd, Manfred Sailer, and Heike Walker. 2013a. Introduction by the editors. In Rightward movement in a comparative perspective, eds. Gerd Webelhuth, Manfred Sailer, and Heike Walker. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/la.200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wells, John C. 2006. English intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
  119. Zec, Draga, and Sharon Inkelas. 1990. Prosodically constrained syntax. In The phonology-syntax connection, eds. Sharon Inkelas and Draga Zec. Stanford: CSLI and CUP. Google Scholar
  120. Zifonoun, Gisela. 2001. Grammatik des deutschen im europäischen vergleich: Der relativsatz, amades – Arbeitspapiere und Materialien zur deutschen Sprache 3, Institut für Deutsche Sprache, Mannheim. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of LinguisticsGoethe-Universität Frankfurt a.M.Frankfurt am MainGermany
  2. 2.Department of LinguisticsMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations