Phrasal grammatical tone in the Dogon languages
- 345 Downloads
Tonosyntax in the Dogon languages of Mali is characterized by word-level tone overlays that apply in specific morphosyntactic contexts. This paper focuses on the resolution of competitions that arise when a word is targeted by more than one tone overlay. For example, in Poss N Adj the possessor and the adjective compete to impose their respective tone overlays on (at least) the noun, and Dogon languages show different outcomes. We argue that overlays are tonal morphemes associated with particular syntactic positions and propose a series of phrasal Optimality Theoretic constraints, grounded in syntactic structure, that control the association of these morphemes. The relative ranking of constraints determines the outcome of tonosyntactic competitions in a given language.
KeywordsTone Morphology Phonology-syntax interface Dogon Optimality theory Variation
We would like to thank Bruce Hayes, Russell Schuh, Kie Zuraw, Larry Hyman, Anoop Mahajan, Laura Kalin, Byron Ahn, Hilda Koopman, and audiences at UCLA, UC Berkeley, ACAL 44, OCP 10, and AIMM 2 for helpful comments and feedback in the development of this topic. This paper has also benefited immensely from the thoughtful comments of the editor and three anonymous reviewers; any errors that remain are strictly our own. We gratefully acknowledge the funding of NSF grants BCS-0537435 (2006-09), BCS-0853364 (2009-13), and BCS-1263150 (2013-16) that made this research possible, as well as the Fulbright Foundation and the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program (first author). Finally, we would like to thank our many Dogon consultants for sharing their languages with us.
- Agren, John. 1973. Etude sur quelques liaisons facultatives dans le francais de conversation radiophonique: frequence et facteurs. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Google Scholar
- Ahn, Byron, and Laura McPherson. 2015, in preparation. It’s just a phase: A model of phonological adjustments to spelled-out material. Ms. BU and Dartmouth College. Google Scholar
- Beam de Azcona, Rosemary. 2004. Introducing San Agustín Mixtepec Zapotec. In Proceedings of the 7th workshop on American indigenous languages, ed. Jany Carmen. Google Scholar
- Bee, Darlene, and Kathleen Barker Glasgow. 1973. Usarufa tone and segmental phonemes. In The languages of the eastern family of the East Highland New Guinea stock, ed. Howard McKaughan. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Google Scholar
- Blench, Roger. 2005. A survey of Dogon languages in Mali: An overview. OGMIOS: Newsletter of the Foundation for Endangered Languages 3: 14–15. Google Scholar
- Booij, Geert. 2010. Construction morphology. London: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
- Borsley, Robert D., and Maggie Tallerman. 1996. Phrases and soft mutation in Welsh. Journal of Celtic Linguistics 5: 1–49. Google Scholar
- Cassimjee, Farida, and Charles Kisseberth. 1998. Optimal Domains Theory and Bantu tonology: A case study from Isixhosa and Shingazidja 33–132. CSLI Publications. Google Scholar
- Chomsky, Noam. 1981. Lectures on government and binding. Dordrecht: Foris. Google Scholar
- Chomsky, Noam. 1995. The minimalist program. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
- Chomsky, Noam. 1999. Derivation by phase. MIT Occasional Papers in Linguistics 18. Google Scholar
- Chomsky, Noam. 2000. Minimalist inquiries: The framework. In Step by step: Essays on minimalist syntax in honor of Howard Lasnik, eds. Roger Martin, David Michaels, and Juan Uriagereka. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
- Chomsky, Noam, and Morris Halle. 1968. The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row. Google Scholar
- Chomsky, Noam, Morris Halle, and Fred Lukoff. 1956. On accent and juncture in English. In For Roman Jakobson: Essays on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday, eds. Morris Halle, Horace Lunta, and Hugh McLean, 65–80. The Hague: Mouton. Google Scholar
- Cinque, Guglielmo. 2011. On double-headed relative clauses. Linguistica 6: 67–91. Google Scholar
- Culy, Christopher. 1990. The syntax and semantics of internally headed relative clauses, Doctoral Dissertation, Stanford University. Google Scholar
- Dobler, Eva. 2008. The morpho-phonology of (in)alienable possession. In Canadian Linguistic Association (CLA). Google Scholar
- Embick, David, and Rolf Noyer. 2007. Distributed morphology and the syntax-morphology interface. In The Oxford handbook of linguistic interfaces, 289–324. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
- Golston, Chris. 1990. Floating H (and L*) tones in Ancient Greek. In Arizona phonology conference III, eds. James Myers and Patricia E. Pérez, 66–82. Tucson: University of Arizona Linguistics Department. Google Scholar
- Green, John N., and Marie-Anne Hintze. 1988. A reconsideration of liaison and enchainement. In Occasional papers, 136–168. University of Essex: Department of Languages and Linguistics. Google Scholar
- Halle, Morris, and Michael Kenstowicz. 1991. The free element condition and cyclic the free element condition and cyclic vs. non-cyclic stress. Linguistic Inquiry 22: 457–501. Google Scholar
- Halle, Morris, and Alec Marantz. 1993. Distributed morphology and the pieces of inflection. In The view from building 20, eds. Kenneth Hale and Samuel Jay Keyser, 111–176. Cambridge: MIT Press. Chap. 3. Google Scholar
- Harley, Heidi, and Rolf Noyer. 1999. Distributed morphology. Glot International 4: 3–9. Google Scholar
- Hayes, Bruce, Bruce Tesar, and Kie Zuraw. 2013. Otsoft 2.3.2 (software package). http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/hayes/otsoft/.
- Heath, Jeffrey. 2011a. A Grammar of Najamba. Unpublished grammar ms., December 2011 version, available on www.dogonlanguages.org.
- Heath, Jeffrey. 2011b. A Grammar of Yorno So. Unpublished grammar ms., May 2011 version, available on www.dogonlanguages.org.
- Heath, Jeffrey. 2012a. A Grammar of Bunoge. Unpublished grammar ms., April 2012 version, available on www.dogonlanguages.org.
- Heath, Jeffrey. 2012b. A Grammar of Tiranige. Unpublished grammar ms. Google Scholar
- Heath, Jeffrey. 2013. A Grammar of Nanga. Unpublished grammar ms., June 2013 version, available on www.dogonlanguages.org.
- Heath, Jeffrey. 2015a. A Grammar of Ben Tey. Language Description Heritage Library. http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0028-1AEF-7.
- Heath, Jeffrey. 2015b. A Grammar of Togo Kan. Language Description Heritage Library. http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0028-1B41-5.
- Heath, Jeffrey. 2015c. A Grammar of Toro Tegu. Language Description Heritage Library. http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0027-7643-7.
- Hetzron, R. 1980. Hungarian tonosyntax. Nyelvtudom anyi Nyelvtudományi Értekezések 104: 389. Google Scholar
- Holmberg, Anders, and David Odden. 2008. The noun phrase in Hawrami. In Aspects of Iranian linguistics, eds. Simin Karimi, S. Vida Samiian, and Donald Stilo, 129–152. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Google Scholar
- Inkelas, Sharon. 1998. The theoretical status of morphologically conditioned phonology: A case study of dominance effects. In Yearbook of morphology, eds. Geert Booij and Jaap van Marle. Vol. 1997, 121–155. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Google Scholar
- Jurgec, Peter. 2010. Disjunctive lexical stratification. Chicago Linguistics Society (CLS) 45: 149–161. Google Scholar
- Kathol, Andreas. 2003. Cooperating constructions in Lai “lexical insertion”. In Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG03), ed. Stefan Müller. Michigan State University, East Lansing: CSLI Publications. Google Scholar
- Kayne, Richard S. 1994. The antisymmetry of syntax. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
- Kiparsky, Paul. 1984. Lexical phonology of Sanskrit word accent. In Amrtādhāra: R.N. Dandekar felicitation volume, ed. S.D. Joshi, 201–210. Delhi: Ajanta Publications. Google Scholar
- Legendre, Géraldine, Yoshiro Miyata, and Paul Smolensky. 1990. Harmonic grammar—A formal multi-level connectionist theory of linguistic well-formedness: Theoretical foundations, Technical report, University of Boulder, CO. Google Scholar
- Liberman, Mark. 1975. The intonational system of English, Doctoral Dissertation, MIT. Google Scholar
- Liberman, Mark, and Alan Prince. 1977. On stress and linguistic rhythm. Linguistic Inquiry 8: 249. Google Scholar
- Loving, Richard. 1973. Awa phonemes, tonemes and tonally differentiated allomorphs. In The languages of the eastern family of the East Highland New Guinea stock, ed. Howard McKaughan, 10–18. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Google Scholar
- Lowenstamm, Jean. 2010. Derivational affixes as roots (phasal spellout meets English stress shift). Ms., Université Paris-Diderot and CNRS. Google Scholar
- McCarthy, John, and Alan Prince. 1993. Generalized alignment. In Yearbook of morphology, eds. Geert Booij and Jaap van Marle, 79–153. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Google Scholar
- McCarthy, John, and Alan Prince. 1994. The emergence of the unmarked: Optimality in prosodic morphology. In North East Linguistics Society (NELS) 24, ed. Merce Gonzalez, 333–379. Amherst: GLSA. Google Scholar
- McHugh, Brian. 1990. Cyclicity in the phrasal phonology of Kivunjo Chaga, Doctoral Dissertation, UCLA. Google Scholar
- McPherson, Laura. 2011. Tonal underspecification and interpolation in Tommo So, Master’s thesis, UCLA. Google Scholar
- McPherson, Laura. 2013a. A grammar of Tommo So. In MGL 62, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. Google Scholar
- McPherson, Laura. 2013b. The structural origins of tonal overlays in Tommo So (Dogon) compounds. Journal of West African Languages 40. Google Scholar
- McPherson, Laura. 2014. Replacive grammatical tone in the Dogon languages, Doctoral Dissertation, UCLA. Google Scholar
- Michaels, Jennifer. 2013. To alternate or not to alternate: What is the boundary? In North East Linguistics Society (NELS) 40, eds. Seda Kan, Claire Moore-Cantwell, and Robert Staubs. Google Scholar
- Nespor, Marina, and Irene Vogel. 1986. Prosodic phonology. Dordrecht: Foris. Google Scholar
- Newman, Paul. 1986. Tone and affixation in Hausa. Studies in African Linguistics 17: 249–267. Google Scholar
- Newman, Paul. 2000. The Hausa language: An encyclopedic reference grammar. New Haven: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
- Ní Chiosaín, Máire. 1991. Topics in the phonology of Irish, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Massachusetts. Google Scholar
- Odden, David. 1993. Interaction between modules in lexical phonology. In Phonetics and phonology 4: Studies in lexical phonology, eds. Ellen Kaisse and Sharon Hargus. San Diego: Academic Press. Google Scholar
- Orgun, Cemil Orhan, and Sharon Inkelas. 2002. Reconsidering bracket erasure. In Yearbook of morphology 2001. Google Scholar
- Pak, Marjorie. 2008. The postsyntactic derivation and its phonological reflexes, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. Google Scholar
- Pater, Joe. 2007. The locus of exceptionality: Morpheme-specific phonology as constraint indexation. In University of Massachusetts occasional working papers in linguistics 32: Papers in optimality theory III, eds. Leah Bateman, Michael O’Keefe, Ehren Reilly, and Adam Werle, 259–296. Amherst: GLSA. Google Scholar
- Pater, Joe. 2010. Morpheme-specific phonology: Constraint indexation and inconsistency resolution. In Phonological argumentation: Essays on evidence and motivation, eds. John McCarthy and Joe Pater, 123–154. London: Equinox Publishing. Google Scholar
- Pierrehumbert, Janet. 1980. The phonetics and phonology of English intonation, Doctoral Dissertation, MIT. Google Scholar
- Piggott, Glyne, and Heather Newell. 2006. Syllabification, stress and derivation by phase in ojibwa. McGill Working Papers in Linguistics 20. Google Scholar
- Prince, Alan. 1975. The phonology and morphology of Tiberian Hebrew, Doctoral Dissertation, MIT. Google Scholar
- Prince, Alan, and Paul Smolensky. 1993. Optimality theory: Constraint interaction in generative grammar. Colorado: Rutgers University and the University of Boulder. Google Scholar
- Riehemann, Susanne. 2001. A constructional approach to words and idioms, Doctoral Dissertation, Stanford University. Google Scholar
- Selkirk, Elisabeth. 1978. On prosodic structure and its relation to syntactic structure. Bloomington: Indiana University Linguistics Club. Google Scholar
- Smolensky, Paul. 1995. On the structure of constraint component con of ug. Talk given at UCLA [ROA-86]. Google Scholar
- Smolensky, Paul. 2006. Optimality in phonology II: Harmonic completeness, local conjunction, and feature domain markedness. In The harmonic mind: From neural computation to optimality-theoretic grammar, eds. Paul Smolensky and Géraldine Legendre. Vol. 2, 27–160. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
- Smolensky, Paul, and Géraldine Legendre. 2006. The harmonic mind: From neural computation to Optimality-Theoretic grammar. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press. Google Scholar
- Steriade, Donca. 1988. Greek accent: A case for preserving structure. Linguistic Inquiry 19: 271–314. Google Scholar
- Suzuki, Takeru. 1997. A theory of lexical functors: Light heads in the lexicon and the syntax, Doctoral Dissertation, University of British Colombia. Google Scholar
- Šurkalović, Dragana. 2013. Modularity, phase-phase faithfulness, and prosodification of function words in English. In A festschrift on the occasion of x years of CASTL phonology and Curt Rice’s Lth birthday, eds. Sylvia Blaho, Martin Krämer, and Bruce Morén-Duolljá. Vol. 40 of Nordlyd, 301–322. University of Tromsø. Google Scholar
- Tesar, Bruce, and Paul Smolensky. 1993. The learnability of Optimality Theory: An algorithm and some basic complexity results. ROA. Google Scholar
- Trommer, Jochen. 2011. Phonological aspects of Western Nilotic mutation morphology, Doctoral Dissertation, Unversität Leipzig. Google Scholar
- Uriagereka, Juan. 1999. Multiple spell out. In Working minimalism, eds. Samual Epstein and Norbert Hornstein, 251–282. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
- Wolf, Matthew. 2007. For an autosegmental theory of mutation. In University of Massachusetts occasional working papers in linguistics 32: Papers in optimality theory III, eds. Leah Bateman, Michael O’Keefe, Ehren Reilly, and Adam Werle, 315–404. GLSA. Google Scholar