Natural Language & Linguistic Theory

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 47–89 | Cite as

Frequency biases in phonological variation

  • Andries W. CoetzeeEmail author
  • Shigeto Kawahara


In the past two decades, variation has received a lot of attention in mainstream generative phonology, and several different models have been developed to account for variable phonological phenomena. However, all existing generative models of phonological variation account for the overall rate at which some process applies in a corpus, and therefore implicitly assume that all words are affected equally by a variable process. In this paper, we show that this is not the case. Many variable phenomena are more likely to apply to frequent than to infrequent words. A model that accounts perfectly for the overall rate of application of some variable process therefore does not necessarily account very well for the actual application of the process to individual words. We illustrate this with two examples, English t/d-deletion and Japanese geminate devoicing. We then augment one existing generative model (noisy Harmonic Grammar) to incorporate the contribution of usage frequency to the application of variable processes. In this model, the influence of frequency is incorporated by scaling the weights of faithfulness constraints up or down for words of different frequencies. This augmented model accounts significantly better for variation than existing generative models.


Variation Usage frequency Harmonic Grammar t/d-deletion Japanese geminate devoicing 



The ideas expressed in this paper were presented in various forms at NAPhC 5, NELS 38, NELS 41, the University of Michigan, the University of Massachusetts, Michigan State University, Stanford University, and SUNY Stony Brook. The feedback and reaction of the audiences at these events contributed significantly to the development of our thoughts. This work has also been discussed in detail with many individuals, and we acknowledge our gratitude for their contribution. This list includes Joe Pater, John McCarthy, John Kingston, Anne-Michelle Tessier, Pam Beddor, San Duanmu, Ricardo Bermúdez-Otero, William Labov, Paul Smolensky, Matt Goldrick, Colin Wilson, Kevin McGowan, and Susan Lin. We also acknowledge the help of Amelia Compton in running many of the Praat simulations in this paper. The three reviewers and the associate editor similarly helped us to improve the paper and to express our ideas more clearly. As always, any remaining errors and shortcomings are our own.

Supplementary material

11049_2012_9179_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (97 kb)
Some Explanatory Notes about the files accompanying this paper (PDF 97 kB)
11049_2012_9179_MOESM2_ESM.collection (1 kb)
Buckeye.Collection (COLLECTION 1 kB)
11049_2012_9179_MOESM3_ESM.csv (1 kb)
Japanese-data.csv (CSV 1 kB)
11049_2012_9179_MOESM4_ESM.collection (1 kb)
Japanese-Exponential.Collection (COLLECTION 1 kB)
11049_2012_9179_MOESM5_ESM.collection (1 kb)
Japanese-Linear.Collection (COLLECTION 1 kB)
11049_2012_9179_MOESM6_ESM.collection (1 kb)
Japanese-Sigmoid.Collection (COLLECTION 1 kB)
11049_2012_9179_MOESM7_ESM.csv (618 kb)
t-d-corpus.csv (CSV 618 kB)


  1. Akaike, Hirotugu. 1973. Information theory as an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In Second international symposium on information theory, eds. Boris N. Petrov and Frigyes Csaki, 267–281. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado. Google Scholar
  2. Akaike, Hirotugu. 1983. Information measures and model selection. International Statistical Institute 44: 277–291. Google Scholar
  3. Albright, Adam. 2009. Feature-based generalisation as a source of gradient acceptability. Phonology 26: 9–41. Google Scholar
  4. Amano, Shigeaki, and Tadahisa Kondo. 2000. NTT database series: Lexical properties of Japanese, 2nd release. Tokyo: Sanseido. Google Scholar
  5. Anttila, Arto. 1997. Deriving variation from grammar. In Variation, change and phonological theory, eds. Frans Hinskens, Roeland van Hout, and Leo Wetzels, 35–68. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Google Scholar
  6. Anttila, Arto. 2002a. Morphologically conditioned phonological alternations. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 20: 1–42. Google Scholar
  7. Anttila, Arto. 2002b. Variation and phonological theory. In Handbook of language variation and change, eds. Jack K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes, 206–243. Oxford: Blackwell. Google Scholar
  8. Anttila, Arto. 2006. Variation and opacity. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 24: 893–944. Google Scholar
  9. Anttila, Arto. 2007. Variation and optionality. In The Cambridge handbook of phonology, ed. Paul de Lacy, 519–536. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
  10. Anttila, Arto, Vivienne Fong, Stefan Benus, and Jennifer Nycz. 2008. Variation and opacity in Singapore English consonant clusters. Phonology 25: 181–216. Google Scholar
  11. Auger, Julie. 2001. Phonological variation and Optimality Theory: Evidence from word-initial vowel epenthesis in Vimeu Picard. Language Variation and Change 13: 253–303. Google Scholar
  12. Baayen, R. Harald, Richard Piepenbrock, and Leon Gulikers. 1995. The CELEX Lexical Database (CD-ROM). Philadelphia: Linguistic Data Consortium. Google Scholar
  13. Baese-Berk, Melissa, and Matt Goldrick. 2009. Mechanisms of interaction in speech production. Language and Cognitive Processes 24: 147–185. Google Scholar
  14. Bane, Max. to appear. A combinatoric model of variation in the English dative alternation. In Proceedings of the 36th annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society. Google Scholar
  15. Bane, Max. 2011. Deriving the structure of variation from the structure of non-variation in the English dative. In Proceedings of the 28th annual meeting of the West Coast conference on formal linguistics, eds. Mary Byram Washburn, Katherine McKinney-Bock, Erika Varis, Ann Sawyer, and Barbara Tomaszewicz, 42–50. Somerville: Cascadilla Press. Google Scholar
  16. Bayley, Robert. 1995. Consonant cluster reduction in Tejano English. Language Variation and Change 6: 303–326. Google Scholar
  17. Bayley, Robert. 2002. The quantitative paradigm. In The handbook of language variation and change, eds. Jack K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes, 117–141. Oxford: Blackwell. Google Scholar
  18. Bell, Alan, Jason Brenier, Michelle Gregory, Cynthia Girand, and Daniel Jurafsky. 2009. Predictability effects on durations of content and function words in conversational English. Journal of Memory and Language 60: 92–111. Google Scholar
  19. Benua, Laura. 2000. Phonological relations between words. New York: Garland. Google Scholar
  20. Boersma, Paul. 1997. How we learn variation, optionality, and probability. University of Amsterdam Institute of Phonetic Sciences Proceedings 21: 43–58. Google Scholar
  21. Boersma, Paul. 2008. Emergent ranking of faithfulness explains markedness and licensing by cue. Ms., University of Amsterdam. Accessed 11 July 2012.
  22. Boersma, Paul, and Bruce Hayes. 2001. Empirical tests of the Gradual Learning Algorithm. Linguistic Inquiry 32: 45–86. Google Scholar
  23. Boersma, Paul, and Joe Pater. 2008. Convergence properties of a Gradual Learning Algorithm for Harmonic Grammar. Ms., University of Amsterdam and University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Accessed 11 July 2012.
  24. Boersma, Paul, and David Weenink. 2009. Praat: Doing phonetics by computer version 5.1.20. [Computer Program.] 31 Accessed October 2009.
  25. Browman, Catherine P., and Louis Goldstein. 1990. Tiers in articulatory phonology, with some implications for casual speech. In Papers in laboratory phonology I: Between the grammar and physics of speech, eds. John Kingston and Mary E. Beckman, 341–376. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
  26. Burnham, Kenneth P., and David R. Anderson. 2004. Multimodel inference: Understanding AIC and BIC in model selection. Sociological Methods and Research 33: 261–304. Google Scholar
  27. Bybee, Joan L. 1985. Morphology: A study of the relation between meaning and form. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Google Scholar
  28. Bybee, Joan L. 2000. The phonology of the lexicon: Evidence from lexical diffusion. In Usage-based models of language, eds. Michael Barlow and Suzanne Kemmer, 65–85. Stanford: CSLI. Google Scholar
  29. Bybee, Joan L. 2001. Phonology and language use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
  30. Bybee, Joan L. 2002. Word frequency and context of use in lexical diffusion of phonetically conditioned sound change. Language Variation and Change 14: 261–290. Google Scholar
  31. Bybee, Joan L. 2006. From usage to grammar: the mind’s response to repetition. Language 82: 711–733. Google Scholar
  32. Bybee, Joan L. 2007. Frequency of use and the organization of language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  33. Byrd, Dani. 1992. A note on English sentence-final stops. In UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, Vol. 81, eds. Pat Keating and Dani Byrd, 37–38. Los Angeles: Department of Linguistics, UCLA. Google Scholar
  34. Carpenter, Angela. 2006. Acquisition of a natural versus an unnatural stress system. Ph.D. diss., University of Massachusetts. Google Scholar
  35. Carpenter, Angela. 2010. A naturalness bias in learning stress. Phonology 27: 345–392. Google Scholar
  36. Coetzee, Andries W. 2004. What it means to be a loser: Non-optimal candidates in Optimality Theory. Ph.D. diss., University of Massachusetts. Google Scholar
  37. Coetzee, Andries W. 2005. The Obligatory Contour Principle in the perception of English. In Prosodies, eds. Sónia Frota, Marina Vigário, and Maria João Frietas, 223–245. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  38. Coetzee, Andries W. 2006. Variation as accessing “non-optimal” candidates. Phonology 23: 337–385. Google Scholar
  39. Coetzee, Andries W. 2008. Grammaticality and ungrammaticality in phonology. Language 84: 218–257. Google Scholar
  40. Coetzee, Andries W. 2009a. An integrated grammatical/non-grammatical model of phonological variation. In Current issues in linguistic interfaces: Volume 2, eds. Young-Se Kang, Jong-Yurl Yoon, Hyunkyung Yo, Sze-Wing Tang, Yong-Soon Kang, Youngjun Jang, Chul Kim, Kyoung-Ae Kim, and Hye-Kyung Kang, 267–294. Seoul: Hankookmunhwasa. Google Scholar
  41. Coetzee, Andries W. 2009b. Learning lexical indexation. Phonology 26: 109–145. Google Scholar
  42. Coetzee, Andries W. 2009c. Phonological variation and lexical frequency. In NELS 38, Vol. 1, eds. Anisa Schardl, Martin Walkow, and Muhammad Abdurrahman, 189–202. Amherst: GLSA. Google Scholar
  43. Coetzee, Andries W. 2012. Variation: Where laboratory and theoretical phonology meet. In Oxford handbook of laboratory phonology, eds. Abigail C. Cohn, Cécile Fougeron, and Marie K. Huffman, 62–75. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  44. Coetzee, Andries W., and Joe Pater. 2008. Weighted constraints and gradient restrictions on place co-occurrence in Muna and Arabic. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 26: 289–337. Google Scholar
  45. Coetzee, Andries W., and Joe Pater. 2011. The place of variation in phonological theory. In Handbook of phonological theory: 2nd Edition, eds. John Goldsmith, Jason Riggle, and Alan Yu, 401–434. Cambridge: Blackwell. Google Scholar
  46. Coetzee, Andries W., and Rigardt Pretorius. 2010. Phonetically grounded phonology and sound change: The case of Tswana labial plosives. Journal of Phonetics 38: 404–421. Google Scholar
  47. Côté, Marie-Hélène. 2004. Syntagmatic distinctness in consonant deletion. Phonology 21: 1–41. Google Scholar
  48. Crawford, Clifford James. 2009. Adaptation and transmission in Japanese loanword phonology. Ph.D. diss., Cornell University. Google Scholar
  49. Diehl, Randy L., and Margaret A. Walsh. 1989. An auditory basis for the stimulus-length effect in the perception of stops and glides. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 85: 2154–2164. Google Scholar
  50. Eek, Arvo, and Einar Meister. 1995. The perception of stop consonants: locus equations and spectral integration. In ICPhS XIII: Proceedings of the XIIIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, Vol. 1, 18–21. Google Scholar
  51. Fasold, R. 1972. Tense marking in Black English. Arlington: Center for Applied Linguistics. Google Scholar
  52. File-Muriel, Richard J. 2010. Lexical frequency as a scalar variable in explaining variation. The Canadian Journal of Linguistics 55: 1–25. Google Scholar
  53. Fowler, Carol A. 1994. Invariants, specifiers, cues: An investigation of locus equations as information for place of articulation. Perception and Psychophysics 55: 597–610. Google Scholar
  54. Frank, Austin F., and T. Florian Jaeger. 2008. Speaking rationally: Uniform Information Density as an optimal strategy for language production. In Proceedings of the 30th annual meeting of the cognitive science society, eds. Brad C. Love, Ken McRae, and Vladimir M. Sloutsky, 939–944. Austin: Cognitive Science Society. Google Scholar
  55. Fruchter, David, and Harvey M. Sussman. 1997. The perceptual relevance of locus equations. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 102: 2997–3008. Google Scholar
  56. Gahl, Susanne. 2008. Time and thyme are not homophones: The effect of lemma frequency on word durations in spontaneous speech. Language 84: 474–496. Google Scholar
  57. Gahl, Susanne, and Alan Yu, eds. 2006. Special issue on exemplar-based models in linguistics. Vol. 23(3) of The Linguistic Review. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. Google Scholar
  58. Goeman, Ton. 1999. T-deletie in Nederlandse dialecten. Kwantitatieve analyse van structurele, ruimtelijke en temporele variate. Ph.D. diss., Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics. Google Scholar
  59. Goeman, Ton, and Pieter van Reenen. 1985. Word-final t-deletion in Dutch dialects. The roles of conceptual prominence, articulatory complexity, paradigmatic properties, token frequency and geographical distribution. Amsterdam: Vakgroep Algemene Taalwetenschap Vrije Universiteit. Google Scholar
  60. Goldinger, Stephen D., Paul A. Luce, David B. Pisoni, and Joanne K. Marcario. 1992. Form-based priming in spoken word recognition: The roles of competition and bias. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition 18: 1211–1238. Google Scholar
  61. Goldsmith, John. 1993. Harmonic phonology. In The last phonological rule: Reflections on constraints and derivations, ed. John Goldsmith, 21–60. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Google Scholar
  62. Goldsmith, John, ed. 1995. The handbook of phonological theory. Oxford: Blackwell. Google Scholar
  63. Gupta, Arjun K., and Saralees Nadarajah, eds. 2004. Handbook of the beta distribution and its applications. New York: Marcel Dekker. Google Scholar
  64. Guy, Gregory R. 1991. Explanation in variable phonology: An exponential model of morphological constraints. Language Variation and Change 3: 1–22. Google Scholar
  65. Guy, Gregory R. 2011. Variability. In The Blackwell companion to phonology: Volume 4, eds. Marc van Oostendorp, Colin J. Ewen, Elizabeth Hume, and Keren Rice, 2190–2213. Oxford: Blackwell. Google Scholar
  66. Guy, Gregory R., and Charles Boberg. 1997. Inherent variability and the Obligatory Contour Principle. Language Variation and Change 9: 149–164. Google Scholar
  67. Hammond, Michael. 1994. An OT account of variability in Walmatjari stress. Ms., University of Arizona. Google Scholar
  68. Hayes, Bruce, and Zsuzsa Cziráky Londe. 2006. Stochastic phonological knowledge: The case of Hungarian vowel harmony. Phonology 23: 59–104. Google Scholar
  69. Hooper, Joan B. 1976. Word frequency in lexical diffusion and the source of morphological change. In Current progress in historical linguistics, ed. William M. Christie, 95–105. Amsterdam: North-Holland. Google Scholar
  70. Hyman, Larry. 2001. On the limits of phonetic determinism in phonology: *NC revisited. In The role of speech perception phenomena in phonology, eds. Elizabeth Hume and Keith Johnson, 141–185. New York: Academic Press. Google Scholar
  71. Itô, Junko. 1988. Syllable theory in prosodic phonology. New York: Garland. Google Scholar
  72. Itô, Junko, and Armin Mester. 2001. Covert generalizations in Optimality Theory: The role of stratal faithfulness constraints. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology, and Morphology 7: 273–299. Google Scholar
  73. Jaeger, T. Florian. 2010. Redundancy and reduction: Speakers manage syntactic information density. Cognitive Psychology 61: 23–62. Google Scholar
  74. Jesney, Karen. 2007. The locus of variation in weighted constraint grammars. Poster presented at the Workshop on Variation, Gradience and Frequency in Phonology. Stanford University, July 2007 [Downloaded on December 27, 2007 from].
  75. Jurafsky, Daniel, Alan Bell, Michelle Gregory, and William D. Raymond. 2001. Probabilistic relations between words: Evidence from reduction in lexical production. In Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure, eds. Joan L. Bybee and Paul Hopper, 229–254. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Google Scholar
  76. Kaisse, Ellen M., and Patricia A. Shaw. 1985. On the theory of lexical phonology. Phonology Yearbook 2: 1–30. Google Scholar
  77. Kaneko, Emiko, and Gregory K. Iverson. 2009. Phonetic and other factors in Japanese on-line adaptation of English final consonants. In Papers from the eighth annual conference of the Japanese Society for Language Science, eds. Shunji Inagaki and Makiko Hirakawa, Vol. 8 of Studies in language sciences, 179–185. Tokyo: Kuroshio Publications. Google Scholar
  78. Kang, Hye-Kyung. 1994. Variation in past-marking and the question of the system in Trinidadian English. In CLS 30: Papers from the 30th regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society Volume 2: The parasession on variation in linguistic theory, ed. Katherine Beals, 15–164. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. Google Scholar
  79. Katayama, Motoko. 1998. Optimality Theory and Japanese loanword phonology. Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Cruz. Google Scholar
  80. Kawahara, Shigeto. 2005. Voicing and geminacy in Japanese: An acoustic and perceptual study. In Univeristy of Massachusetts occasional papers in linguistics, Vol. 31, eds. Katherine Flack and Shigeto Kawahara, 87–120. Amherst: GLSA. Google Scholar
  81. Kawahara, Shigeto. 2006. A faithfulness ranking projected from a perceptibility scale: The case of [+voice] in Japanese. Language 82: 536–574. Google Scholar
  82. Kawahara, Shigeto. 2008. Phonetic naturalness and unnaturalness in Japanese loanword phonology. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 18: 317–330. Google Scholar
  83. Kawahara, Shigeto. 2011a. Aspects of Japanese loanword devoicing. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 20: 169–194. Google Scholar
  84. Kawahara, Shigeto. 2011b. Japanese loanword devoicing revisited: A wellformedness rating study. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 29: 705–723. Google Scholar
  85. Kempen, Gerard, and Karin Harbusch. 2008. Comparing linguistic judgments and corpus frequencies as windows on grammatical competence: A study of argument linearization in German clauses. In The discourse potential of underspecified structures, ed. Anita Steube, 179–192. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  86. Kewley-Port, Diane. 1983. Time-varying features as correlates of place of articulation in stop consonants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 73: 322–335. Google Scholar
  87. Kewley-Port, Diane, David Pisoni, and Michael Studdert-Kennedy. 1983. Perception of static and dynamic acoustic cues to place of articulation in initial stop consonants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 73: 1779–1793. Google Scholar
  88. Kiparsky, Paul. 1985. Some consequences of Lexical Phonology. Phonology Yearbook 2: 85–138. Google Scholar
  89. Kiparsky, Paul. 1993. An OT perspective on phonological variation. Ms. Stanford University. Paper presented at the Rutgers Optimality Workshop. October, 1993. Accessed 11 July 2012.
  90. Labov, William. 1966. The Social stratification of English in New York City. Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics. Google Scholar
  91. Labov, William. 1969. Contraction, deletion, and inherent variability of the English copula. Language 45: 715–762. Google Scholar
  92. Labov, William. 1989. The child as linguistic historian. Language Variation and Change 1: 85–97. Google Scholar
  93. Labov, William. 2004. Quantitative analysis of linguistic variation. In Sociolinguistics: An international handbook of the science of language and society, volume 1: 2nd edition, eds. Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus J. Mattheier, and Peter Trudgill, 6–21. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  94. Lacoste, Véronique. 2008. Learning the sounds of Standard Jamaican English: Variationist, phonological and pedagogical perspectives on 7-year-old children’s classroom speech. Ph.D. diss., University of Essex. Google Scholar
  95. Lahiri, Aditi, Letitia Gewirth, and Sheila E. Blumstein. 1984. A reconsideration of acoustic invariance for place of articulation in diffuse stop consonants: Evidence from a cross-language study. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 76: 391–404. Google Scholar
  96. Legendre, Géraldine, Yoshiro Miyata, and Paul Smolensky. 1990. Can connectionism contribute to syntax? Harmonic Grammar, with an application. In Proceedings of the 26th regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, eds. Michael Ziolkowski, Manuela Noske, and Karen Deaton, 237–252. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. Google Scholar
  97. Lin, Susan, Patrice S. Beddor, and Andries W. Coetzee. 2011. Gestural reduction and sound change: An ultrasound study. In ICPhS XVII: Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, eds. Wai-Sum Lee and Eric Zee, 1250–1253. Google Scholar
  98. Lindblom, Bjorn. 1990. Explaining phonetic variation: A sketch of the H and H theory. In Speech production and speech modeling, eds. William J. Hardcastle and Alain Marchal, 403–439. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. Google Scholar
  99. Luce, Paul A., and David B. Pisoni. 1986. Recognizing spoken words: The neighborhood activation model. Ear and Hearing 19: 1–35. Google Scholar
  100. Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio, and Xavier Villalba. 1995. Locus equations as a metric for place of articulation in automatic speech recognition. In ICPhS XIII: Proceedings of the XIIIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, Vol. 1, eds. Kjell Elenius and Peter Branderud, 30–33. Stockholm: Stockholm University. Google Scholar
  101. Malécot, André. 1958. The role of releases in the identification of released final stops: A series of tape-cutting experiments. Language 34: 274–284. Google Scholar
  102. McCarthy, John J. 2003. Sympathy, cumulativity, and the Duke-of-York gambit. In The syllable in Optimality Theory, eds. Caroline Féry and Ruben van de Vijver, 23–76. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
  103. McCarthy, John J., and Alan Prince. 1995. Faithfulness and reduplicative identity. In Papers in Optimality Theory, eds. Jill Beckman, Suzanne Urbanczyk, and Laura Walsh Dickey. Vol. 18 of University of Massachusetts occasional papers in linguistics, 249–384. Amherst: GLSA. Google Scholar
  104. McNamara, Timothy P. 2005. Semantic priming: Perspectives from memory and word recognition. New York: Psychology Press, Taylor and Francis. Google Scholar
  105. Merchant, Nazarré, and Bruce Tesar. 2005. Learning underlying forms by searching restricted lexical subspaces. In CLS 41: Proceedings from the 41st annual meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, Vol. 2, eds. Rodney L. Edwards, Patrick J. Midtlyng, Colin L. Sprague, and Kjersti G. Stensrud, 33–48. Chicago: CLS. Google Scholar
  106. Mitterer, Holger, and Mirjam Ernestus. 2006. Listeners recover /t/’s that speakers reduce: Evidence from /t/-lenition in Dutch. Journal of Phonetics 34: 73–103. Google Scholar
  107. Moreton, Elliott. 2008. Learning bias as a factor in phonological typology. Phonology 25: 83–127. Google Scholar
  108. Moreton, Elliott. 2010. Underphonologization and modularity bias. In Phonological argumentation: Essays on evidence and motivation, ed. Stephen Parker, 79–101. London: Equinox. Google Scholar
  109. Nearey, Terrance M., and Sherrie E. Shammas. 1987. Formant transitions as partly distinctive invariant properties in the identification of voiced stops. Canadian Acoustics 15: 17–24. Google Scholar
  110. Nevins, Andrew. 2007. Review of Scheer 2004. Lingua 118: 425–434. Google Scholar
  111. Nishimura, Kohei. 2003. Lyman’s law in loanwords. M.A. thesis, Nagoya University. Google Scholar
  112. Nishimura, Kohei. 2006. Lyman’s Law in loanwords. Phonological Studies [Onin Kenkyuu] 9: 83–90. Google Scholar
  113. Pater, Joe. 2009. Weighted constraints in generative linguistics. Cognitive Science 33: 999–1035. Google Scholar
  114. Pater, Joe, and Anne-Michelle Tessier. 2006. L1 phonotactic knowledge and the L2 acquisition of alternations. In Inquiries in linguistic development: Studies in honor of Lydia White, eds. Roumyana Slabakova, Silvina A. Montrul, and Philippe Prévost, 115–131. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Google Scholar
  115. Patrick, Peter L. 1992. Creoles at the intersection of variable processes: t,d deletion and past-marking in the Jamaican mesolect. Language Variation and Change 3: 171–189. Google Scholar
  116. Patterson, David, and Cynthia M. Connine. 2001. Variant frequency in flap production: A corpus analysis of variant frequency in American English flap production. Phonetica 58: 254–275. Google Scholar
  117. Phillips, Betty S. 1984. Word frequency and the actuation of sound change. Language 60: 320–342. Google Scholar
  118. Phillips, Betty S. 2001. Lexical diffusion, lexical frequency, and lexical analysis. In Frequency and emergence of linguistic structure, eds. Joan L. Bybee and Paul Hopper, 123–136. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Google Scholar
  119. Phillips, Betty S. 2006. Word frequency and lexical diffusion. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Google Scholar
  120. Pierrehumbert, Janet. 2001. Exemplar dynamics: Word frequency, lenition and contrast. In Frequency effects and the emergence of lexical structure, eds. Joan L. Bybee and Paul Hopper, 137–157. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Google Scholar
  121. Pitt, Mark A., Laura Dilley, Keith Johnson, Scott Kiesling, William D. Raymond, Elizabeth Hume, and E. Fosler-Lussier. 2007. Buckeye corpus of conversational speech, 2nd Release. Columbus: Department of Psychology, Ohio State University. Google Scholar
  122. Postal, Paul. 1966. Review of “Elements of general linguistics” by André Martinet. Foundations of Language 2: 151–186. Google Scholar
  123. Postal, Paul. 1968. Aspects of phonological theory. New York: Harper and Row. Google Scholar
  124. Prince, Alan, and Paul Smolensky. 1993. Optimality Theory: Constraint interaction in Generative Grammar. Ms., New Brunswick, Rutgers University. Google Scholar
  125. Prince, Alan, and Paul Smolensky. 2004. Optimality Theory: Constraint interaction in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell. Google Scholar
  126. Pullum, Geoffrey K. 2003. Learnability. In The international encyclopedia of linguistics, ed. William J. Frawley, 431–434. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  127. Raymond, William D., Robin Dautricourt, and Elizabeth Hume. 2006. Word-medial /t,d/ deletion in spontaneous speech: Modeling the effects of extra-linguistic, lexical, and phonological factors. Language Variation and Change 18: 55–97. Google Scholar
  128. Reynolds, Bill. 1994. Variation and phonological theory. Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania. Google Scholar
  129. Santa Ana, Otto. 1991. Phonetic simplification processes in the English of the barrio: A cross-generational sociolinguistic study of the Chicanos of Los Angeles. Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania. Google Scholar
  130. Scarborough, Rebecca. 2004. Coarticulation and the structure of the lexicon. Ph.D. diss., UCLA. Google Scholar
  131. Scarborough, Rebecca. 2010. Lexical and contextual predictability: Confluent effects on the production of vowels. In Papers in laboratory phonology X: Variation, phonetic detail and phonological modeling, eds. Cécile Fougeron, Barbara Kühnert, Mariapaola D’Imperio, and Nathalie Vallée, 557–586. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Google Scholar
  132. Schouten, Marten E.H. 1982. T-deletie in de stad Utrecht: Schoolkinderen en grootouders. Forum der Letteren 23: 282–291. Google Scholar
  133. Schouten, Marten E.H. 1984. T-deletie in Het Zuiden van die provincie Utrecht. Taal en Tongval 36: 162–173. Google Scholar
  134. Smolensky, Paul, and Géraldine Legendre, eds. 2006. The harmonic mind: From neural computation to Optimality-Theoretic grammar, Volume 1: Cognitive architecture, Volume 2: Linguistic and philosophical implications. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  135. Steriade, Donca. 1999. Phonetics in phonology: The case of laryngeal neutralization. In UCLA working papers in linguistics 2 (Papers in phonology 3), ed. Matthew K. Gordon, 25–146. Los Angeles: Department of Linguistics, UCLA. Google Scholar
  136. Steriade, Donca. 2001. Directional asymmetries in place assimilation. In The role of speech perception in phonology, eds. Elizabeth Hume and Keith Johnson, 219–250. San Diego: Academic Press. Google Scholar
  137. Stevens, Kenneth N., and Sheila E. Blumstein. 1978. Invariant cues for place of articulation in stop consonants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 64: 1358–1368. Google Scholar
  138. Stevens, Kenneth N., and Samuel J. Keyser. 1989. Primary features and their enhancement in consonants. Language 65: 81–106. Google Scholar
  139. Sussman, Harvey M., Helen A. McCaffrey, and Sandar A. Matthews. 1991. An investigation of locus equations as a source of relational invariance for stop place categorization. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 90: 936–946. Google Scholar
  140. Tanaka, Shin-Ichi. 2009. The eurhythmics of segmental melody. Journal of the Phonetic Society of Japan 13: 44–52. Google Scholar
  141. Tesar, Bruce. 2006. Learning from paradigmatic information. In NELS 36: Proceedings of the thirty-sixth annual meeting of the North East Linguistic Society, Vol. 2, eds. Christopher Davis, Amy-Rose Deal, and Youri Zabbal, 619–638. Amherst: GLSA. Google Scholar
  142. Tesar, Bruce, and Paul Smolensky. 1996. Learnability in Optimality Theory (long version). Technical report JHU-CogSci-96-4, Department of Cognitive Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. Google Scholar
  143. Tesar, Bruce, and Paul Smolensky. 1998. Learnability in Optimality Theory. Linguistic Inquiry 29: 229–268. Google Scholar
  144. van Oostendorp, Marc. 1997. Style levels in conflict resolution. In Variation, change and phonological theory, eds. Frans Hinskens, Roeland van Hout, and Leo Wetzels, 207–229. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Google Scholar
  145. Versace, Rémy, and Brigitte Nevers. 2003. Word frequency effect on repetition priming as a function of prime duration and delay between the prime and the target. British Journal of Psychology 94: 389–408. Google Scholar
  146. Vitevitch, Michael S., and Paul A. Luce. 1998. When words compete: Levels of processing in spoken word recognition. Psychological Science 9: 325–329. Google Scholar
  147. Vitevitch, Michael S., and Paul A. Luce. 1999. Probabilistic phonotactics and neighborhood activation in spoken word recognition. Journal of Memory and Language 40: 374–408. Google Scholar
  148. Walsh, Margaret A., and Randy L. Diehl. 1991. Formant transition duration and amplitude rise time as cues to the stop/glide distinction. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A 43: 603–620. Google Scholar
  149. Zsiga, Elisabeth. 2000. Phonetic alignment constraints: Consonant overlap and palatalization in English and Russian. Journal of Phonetics 28: 69–102. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of LinguisticsUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of LinguisticsRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations