On the operator freezing effect

syntax

Abstract

Based on a number of operations creating operator-variable chains, namely, wh-movement, focalization, topicalization, quantifier raising, and the NPI-licensing movement, the article argues that operators in operator-variable chains cannot undergo further operator movement. It is shown that the generalization in question can be deduced from Chomsky’s (2000, 2001a) Activation Condition. The article also discusses the contexts where Bulgarian, a multiple wh-fronting language, allows extraction out of wh-islands. A new generalization is proposed regarding the ability of languages like Bulgarian to violate the Wh-Island Constraint in the contexts in question, which dissociates it from multiple wh-fronting and ties it to a property of D, in particular, availability of affixal articles.

Keywords

Activation condition Affixal articles Multiple wh-fronting Operator Superiority Wh-islands 

References

  1. Abney, S. (1987). The English noun phrase in its sentential aspect. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  2. Agüero-Bautista, C. (2001). Cyclicity and the scope of wh-phrases. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  3. Barbosa, P. (1995). Null subjects. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  4. Bejar, S., & Massam, D. (1999). Multiple case checking. Syntax, 2, 65–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belletti, A. (1988). The case of unaccusatives. Linguistic Inquiry, 19, 1–34.Google Scholar
  6. Boeckx, C. (2003). Symmetries and asymmetries in multiple checking. In C. Boeckx, & K. Grohmann (Eds.) Multiple wh-fronting (pp. 17–26). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  7. Bošković, Ž. (1997a). Superiority effects with multiple wh-fronting in Serbo-Croatian. Lingua, 102, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bošković, Ž. (1997b). Fronting wh-phrases in Serbo-Croatian. In M. Lindseth & S. Franks (Eds.) Proceedings of the V Annual Workshop on Formal Approaches to Slavic Linguistics (pp. 86–107). Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications.Google Scholar
  9. Bošković, Ž. (1999). On multiple feature-checking: Multiple wh-fronting and multiple head-movement. In S. Epstein & N. Hornstein (Eds.) Working minimalism (pp. 159–187). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bošković, Ž. (2002a). On multiple wh-fronting. Linguistic Inquiry, 33, 351–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bošković, Ž. (2002b). A-movement and the EPP. Syntax, 5, 167–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bošković, Ž. (2003). On wh-islands and obligatory wh-movement contexts in South Slavic. In C. Boeckx & K. Grohmann (Eds.) Multiple wh-fronting (pp. 27–50). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  13. Bošković, Ž. (2005). On the locality of left branch extraction and the structure of NP. Studia Linguistica, 59, 1–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bošković, Ž. (2007). On the locality and motivation of Move and Agree: An even more minimal theory. Linguistic Inquiry, 38, 589–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bošković, Ž. (in press a). The NP/DP analysis and Slovenian. Proceedings of the University of Novi Sad Workshop on Generative Syntax 1.Google Scholar
  16. Bošković, Ž. (in press b). On successive cyclic movement and the freezing effect of feature checking. In J. Hartmann, V. Hegedüs & H. van Riemsdijk (Eds.), Sounds of silence: Empty elements in syntax and phonology. Amsterdam: Elsevier North Holland.Google Scholar
  17. Bošković, Ž. (in preparation). Review of Wh-movement: Moving on by Lisa Lai-Shen Cheng and Norbert Corver. To appear in Language.Google Scholar
  18. Bošković, Ž., & Lasnik, H. (1999). How strict is the cycle? Linguistic Inquiry, 30, 691–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bošković, Ž., & Takahashi, D. (1998). Scrambling and last resort. Linguistic Inquiry, 29, 347–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bowers, J. (1987). Extended X-bar theory, the ECP, and the left branch condition. In M. Crowhurst (Ed.) Proceedings of the Sixth West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (pp. 47–62). Stanford: Stanford Linguistic Association, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  21. Choi, H.-W. (1999). Optimizing structure in context: Scrambling and information structure. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  22. Chomsky, N. (1995). The minimalist program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  23. Chomsky, N. (2000). Minimalist inquiries. In R. Martin, D. Michaels, & J. Uriagereka (Eds.) Step by step: Essays on minimalist syntax in honor of Howard Lasnik (pp. 89–155). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  24. Chomsky, N. (2001a). Derivation by phase. In M. Kenstowicz (Ed.) Ken Hale: A life in language (pp. 1–52). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. Chomsky, N. (2001b). Beyond explanatory adequacy. In V. Lindblad & M. Gamon (Eds.) MIT working papers in linguistics 20: Papers from SCIL V (pp. 1–28). Cambridge, MA: MIT Working Papers in Linguistics.Google Scholar
  26. Chomsky, N. (2005). Three factors in language design. Linguistic Inquiry, 36, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chomsky, N. (in press). On phases. In R. Freidin, C. P. Otero & M. L. Zubizarreta (Eds.), Foundational issues in linguistic theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  28. Chomsky, N., & Lasnik, H. (1993). The theory of principles and parameters. In J. Jacobs, A. von Stechow, W. Sternefeld, & T. Vennemann (Eds.) Syntax: An international handbook of contemporary research, Vol. 1 (pp. 506–569). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  29. Comorovski, I. (1986). Multiple wh-movement in Romanian. Linguistic Inquiry, 17, 171–177.Google Scholar
  30. Comorovski, I. (1996). Interrogative phrases and the syntax-semantics interface. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  31. Cowper, E. (1988). What is a subject? Non-nominative subjects in Icelandic. In J. Blevins & J. Carter (Eds.) Proceedings of the North East Linguistic Society 18 (pp. 94–108). Amherst: Graduate Linguistic Student Association, University of Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  32. Culicover, P. (1996). On distinguishing A′-movements. Linguistic Inquiry, 27, 445–463.Google Scholar
  33. Delsing, L.-O. (1993). The internal structure of Noun Phrases in the Scandinavian languages, Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Lund.Google Scholar
  34. den Dikken, M. (2003). On the morphosyntax of wh-movement. In C. Boeckx & K. Grohmann (Eds.) Multiple wh-fronting (pp. 77–98). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  35. den Dikken, M., & Giannakidou, A. (2002). From hell to polarity. Linguistic Inquiry, 33, 31–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Diesing, M. (1992). Indefinites. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  37. Engdahl, E. (1986). Constituent questions. Dordrecht: Reidel.Google Scholar
  38. Epstein, S. D. (1992). Derivational constraints on A′-chain formation. Linguistic Inquiry, 23, 235–259.Google Scholar
  39. Fowler, G., & Franks, S. (1994). The structure of DP in Bulgarian. Indiana Linguistic Studies, 7, 58–68.Google Scholar
  40. Fox, D., & Nissenbaum, J. (1999). Extraposition and scope: A case for overt QR. In S. Bird, A. Carnie, J. D. Haugen, & P. Norquest (Eds.) Proceedings of the 18th West Coast Conference on formal linguistics (pp. 43–54). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.Google Scholar
  41. Frampton, J., & Gutmann, S. (1999). Cyclic computation, a computationally efficient minimalist syntax. Syntax, 2, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Franks, S. (1998). Clitics in Slavic. Paper presented at the Comparative Slavic Morphosyntax Workshop, Spencer, IN.Google Scholar
  43. Freidin, R., & Sprouse, R. (1991). Lexical case phenomena. In R. Freidin (Ed.) Principles and parameters in comparative grammar (pp. 392–416). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  44. Giannakidou, A. (1998). Polarity sensitivity as (non)veridical dependency. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  45. Grewendorf, G. (2001). Multiple wh-fronting. Linguistic Inquiry, 32, 87–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grewendorf, G. (2005). The discourse configurationality of scrambling. In J. Sabel & M. Saito (Eds.) The free word order phenomenon: Its syntactic sources and diversity (pp. 75–135). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  47. Grewendorf, G., & Sabel, J. (1999). Scrambling in German and Japanese: Adjunction vs. multiple specifiers. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 17, 1–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Grohmann, K. (1998). Syntactic inquiries into discourse restrictions on multiple interrogatives. Groninger Arbeiten Zur Germanistischen Linguistik, 42, 1–60.Google Scholar
  49. Grohmann, K. (2003). Prolific domains: on the anti-locality of movement dependencies. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  50. Halpern, A. L. (1995). On the placement and morphology of clitics. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  51. Harada, K. (1972). Constraints on wh-Q binding. In Studies in descriptive and applied linguistics, 5, 180–206.Google Scholar
  52. Heck, F., & Müller, G. (2003). Derivational optimization of wh-movement. Linguistic Analysis, 33, 97–148.Google Scholar
  53. Herburger, E. (1994). A semantic difference between full and partial wh-movement in German. Paper presented at the 68th Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  54. Hiraiwa, K. (2005). Dimensions of symmetry in syntax: Agreement and clausal architecture. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  55. Hornstein, N. (1999). Minimalism and quantifier raising. In S. Epstein & N. Hornstein (Eds.) Working minimalism (pp. 45–75). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  56. Hsin, T.-H. (1997). On the grammatical status of temporal and locative WHs. Unpublished manuscript, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  57. Huang, C.-T. J. (1982). Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  58. Izvorski, R. (1996). The syntax and semantics of correlative proforms. In K. Kusumoto (Ed.) Proceedings of the North East Linguistics Society 26 (pp. 133–147). Amherst, MA: Graduate Linguistic Student Association, University of Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  59. Izvorski, R. (1998). Non-indicative wh-complements of possessive and existential predicates. In P. N. Tamanji & K. Kusumoto (Eds.) Proceedings of North East Linguistics Society 28 (pp. 159–173). Amherst, MA: Graduate Linguistic Student Association, University of Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  60. Julien, M. (2002). Determiners and word order in Scandinavian. Studia Linguistica, 56, 264–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kawashima, R., & Kitahara, H. (1992). Licensing of negative polarity items and checking theory: A comparative study of English and Japanese. In L. S. Stvan, S. Ryberg, M. B. Olsen, T. Macfarland, L. DiDesidero, A. Bertram, & L. Adams (Eds.) FLSM III: Papers from the third annual meeting of the Formal Linguistics Society of Midamerica (pp. 139–154). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Linguistics Club, Indiana University.Google Scholar
  62. Kim, J.-S. (1997). Syntactic focus movement and ellipsis: A minimalist approach. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  63. Kiss, K. (1987). Configurationality in Hungarian. Dordrecht: Reidel.Google Scholar
  64. Kiss, K. (1991). Logical structure in syntactic structure: The case of Hungarian. In C.-T. J. Huang & R. May (Eds.) Logical structure and linguistic structure: Cross-linguistic perspectives (pp. 111–148). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  65. Koizumi, M. (1994). Layered specifiers. In M. Gonzàlez (Ed.) Proceedings of the North East Linguistic Society 24 (pp. 255–269). Amherst, MA: Graduate Linguistic Student Association, University of Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  66. Koizumi, M. (1995). Phrase structure in minimalist syntax. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  67. Krapova, I., & Cinque, G. (2003). On the order of wh-phrases in Bulgarian multiple wh-fronting. Paper presented at the Fifth European Conference on Formal Description of Slavic Languages (FDSL 5), University of Leipzig.Google Scholar
  68. Lasnik, H. (1995). Last resort. In S. Haraguchi & M. Funaki (Eds.) Minimalism and linguistic theory (pp. 1–32). Tokyo: Hituzi Syobo.Google Scholar
  69. Lasnik, H., & Saito, M. (1991). On the subject of infinitives. In L. M. Dobrin, L. Nichols, & R. M. Rodriguez (Eds.) Papers from the 27th regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society part one: The general session (pp. 324–343). Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  70. Lasnik, H., & Uriagereka, J. (1988). A course in GB syntax: Lectures on binding and empty categories. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  71. Lee, R. K. (1994). Economy of representation. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  72. Lenerz, J. (1977). Zur Abfolge nominaler Satzglieder im Deutschen. Tübingen: Narr.Google Scholar
  73. Maling, J. (1978). An asymmetry with respect to wh-islands. Linguistic Inquiry, 9, 75–89.Google Scholar
  74. Moltmann, F. (1991). Scrambling in German and the specificity effect. Unpublished manuscript, MIT.Google Scholar
  75. Müller, G. (1998). Incomplete category fronting: A derivational approach to remnant movement in German. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  76. Müller, G. (2001). Order preservation, parallel movement, and the emergence of the unmarked. In G. Legendre, J. Grimshaw, & S. Vikner (Eds.) Optimality-theoretic syntax (pp. 279–313). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  77. Müller, G., & Sternefeld, W. (1993). Improper movement and unambiguous binding. Linguistic Inquiry, 24, 461–507.Google Scholar
  78. Müller, G., & Sternefeld, W. (1996). A′-chain formation and economy of derivation. Linguistic Inquiry, 27, 480–511.Google Scholar
  79. Nishigauchi, T. (1990). Quantification in the theory of grammar. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  80. Nissenbaum, J. (2000). Investigations of covert phrase movement. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  81. Ordoñez, F. (1997). Word order and clause structure in Spanish and other Romance languages. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, City University of New York.Google Scholar
  82. Pesetsky, D. (2000). Phrasal movement and its kin. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  83. Postal, P. M. (1966). On so-called pronouns in English. In F. P. Dinneen (Ed.) The nineteenth monograph on language and linguistics (pp. 178–206). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Progovac, L. (1994). Negative and positive polarity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Reinhart, T. (1981). A second Comp position. In A. Belletti, L. Brandi, & L. Rizzi (Eds.) Theory of markedness of grammar - Proceedings of the 1979 GLOW conference (pp. 515–557). Pisa: Normale Superiore.Google Scholar
  86. Reglero, L. (2003). Non-wh-fronting in Basque. In C. Boeckx & K. Grohmann (Eds.) Multiple wh-fronting (pp. 187–227). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  87. Reglero, L. (2004). On A-dependencies in Spanish and Basque. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  88. Roehrs, D. (2006). The morpho-syntax of the Germanic Noun Phrase: Determiners move into the Determiner Phrase. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University.Google Scholar
  89. Richards, N. (1997). What moves where when in which language. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  90. Richards, N. (1998). Shortest moves to (anti-)superiority. In E. Curtis, J. Lyle, & G. Webster (Eds.) Proceedings of the West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics 16 (pp. 335–349). Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  91. Richards, N. (2001). Movement in language: Interactions and architectures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Richards, N. (2006). A distinctness condition on linearization. Unpublished manuscript, MIT.Google Scholar
  93. Rizzi, L. (1982). Issues in Italian syntax. Dordrecht: Foris.Google Scholar
  94. Rizzi, L. (1991). Residual verb second and the wh-criterion. Unpublished manuscript, University of Geneva.Google Scholar
  95. Rizzi, L. (2006). On the form of chains: Criterial positions and ECP effects. In L. L.-S. Cheng & N. Corver (Eds.) Wh-movement: Moving on (pp. 97–133). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  96. Rudin, C. (1988). On multiple questions and multiple wh-fronting. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 6, 445–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Saddock, J. (1991). Autolexical Syntax: A theory of parallel grammatical representations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  98. Saito, M. (1989). Scrambling as semantically vacuous A′-movement. In M. R. Baltin & A. S. Kroch (Eds.) Alternative conceptions of phrase structure (pp. 182–200). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  99. Saito, M. (1992). Long distance scrambling in Japanese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 1, 69–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Santelmann, L. (1993). The distribution of double determiners in Swedish. Den support in D0. Studia Linguistica, 47, 154–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sauerland, U. (1999). Erasability and interpretation. Syntax, 2, 161–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sohn, K.-W. (1995). Negative polarity items, scope, and economy. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  103. Stjepanović, S. (1999). What do second position cliticization, scrambling, and multiple wh-fronting have in common? Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  104. Stjepanović, S. (2003). A word-order paradox resolved by copy deletion at PF. Linguistic Variation Yearbook, 3, 139–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Stowell, T. (1981). Origins of phrase structure. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  106. Stowell, T. (1989). Subjects, specifiers, and X-bar theory. In M. R. Baltin & A. S. Kroch (Eds.) Alternative conceptions of phrase structure (pp. 232–262). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  107. Svenonius, P. (2004). On the edge. In D. Adger, C. de Cat, & G. Tsoulas (Eds.) Peripheries: Syntactic edges and their effects (pp. 261–287). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  108. Szabolcsi, A. (1997). Strategies for scope taking. In A. Szabolcsi (Ed.) Ways of scope taking (pp. 109–154). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  109. Tada, H. (1993). A/Apartition in derivation. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  110. Takahashi, D. (1994). Minimality of movement. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  111. Tomić, O. M. (1996). The Balkan Slavic nominal clitics. In A. Halpern & A. Zwicky (Eds.) Approaching second: Second position clitics and related phenomena (pp. 511–536). Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University.Google Scholar
  112. Uribe-Echevarria, M. (1992). On the structural positions of subjects in Spanish, and their consequences for quantification. In J. A. Lakarra & J. O. de Urbina (Eds.) Syntactic theory and Basque syntax (pp. 447–493). San Sebastian: ASJU.Google Scholar
  113. Vangsnes, Ø. A. (1999). The identification of functional architecture. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Bergen.Google Scholar
  114. Watanabe, A. (1992). Wh-in-situ, Subjacency, and chain formation. In MIT Occasional Papers in Linguistics 2. Cambridge, MA: MIT Working Papers in Linguistics.Google Scholar
  115. Williams, E. (2006). Subjects of different heights. In J. Lavine, S. Franks, M. Tasseva-Kurkchieva, & H. Filip (Eds.)Proceedings of Formal Approaches to Slavic Linguistics 14: The Princeton Meeting 2005 (pp. 409–427). Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan Slavic Publications.Google Scholar
  116. Wu, J. (1999). Syntax and semantics of quantification in Chinese. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Linguistics, U-1145University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

Personalised recommendations