Impact of Cigarette Smoke Condensate on Adhesion-Related Traits and Hemolysin Production of Oral Candida dubliniensis Isolates

  • Arjuna Nishantha Bandara EllepolaEmail author
  • Zia Uddin Khan
Original Article



Cigarette smoke is associated with higher oral Candida carriage and possible predisposition and increased susceptibility to oral candidal infection. Candida dubliniensis is associated with oral candidosis. Candidal adherence to buccal epithelial cells (BEC) and denture acrylic surfaces (DAS), germ tube (GT) formation, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and hemolysin production are pathogenic traits of Candida.


The impact of exposure to cigarette smoke on the aforementioned pathogenic attributes of oral C. dubliniensis has not been studied. Hence, the impact of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on adhesion to BEC and DAS, GT formation, CSH and hemolysin production of 20 oral C. dubliniensis isolates after exposure to CSC for 24, 48 and 72 h was ascertained.


After preparation of the CSC, using an in-house smoking device, the Candida isolates were exposed to the CSC for 24, 48 and 72 h, by a previously described in vitro method. Thereafter, the adhesion to BEC and DAS, GT formation, CSH and hemolysin production of C. dubliniensis isolates was investigated by hitherto described in vitro assays.


Exposure to CSC significantly increased the ability of C. dubliniensis oral isolates to adhere to BEC, DAS, GT formation, CSH and produce hemolysin following 24-h, 48-h and 72-h exposure periods to CSC (P < 0.001 for all attributes tested).


Exposure of oral C. dubliniensis isolates to CSC may significantly promote in vitro adhesion traits and hemolysin production of these isolates, thereby augmenting its pathogenicity in vitro in the presence of cigarette smoke.


Adhesion Candida dubliniensis Cigarette smoke condensate and hemolysin 



The work was supported and funded by Kuwait University Research Grant No. DB 02/15. The technical/laboratory support and advice from Ms. Rachel Chandy (former chief technician), Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, is very much appreciated and thankfully acknowledged. The valuable contribution of Dr. Jagan Kumar, Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait, on statistical analysis of data is also much appreciated.

Author Contributions

ANBE wrote the research grant proposal, carried out and supervised research work, analyzed data, and wrote the manuscript. ZUK provided analytical appraisal on the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest to be declared pertaining to this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Bioclinical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Health Sciences CenterKuwait UniversitySafat, JabriyaKuwait
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences CenterKuwait UniversityJabriyaKuwait

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