Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Reduces Trichophyton rubrum Adherence and Infection Capacity
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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) jet on Trichophyton rubrum growth, germination and adherence to nail. The effects of plasma jet on T. rubrum conidia germination and on mycelial growth were evaluated by in vitro assays. An ex vivo nail infection model was used to evaluate the effects on conidia adherence and infection. Biochemical analyses of nail fragments exposed or not to CAPP were performed by attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR–FTIR) spectroscopy. Plasma jet exposure for 10 and 15 min completely inhibited mycelial growth after only one exposure. Fifteen minutes of exposure could reduce conidia germination in suspension. Fungal suspensions exposed to plasma jet for 10 and 15 min were not able to infect nail specimens. These results were corroborated by ATR–FTIR analyses of nail fragments. In conclusion, single exposure to CAPP for 15 min was able to inhibit fungal growth, adherence and infection capacity. The results suggest that cold atmospheric plasma jet can be a promising alternative for the treatment of onychomycoses caused by T. rubrum.
KeywordsCold plasma Onychomycosis Trichophyton rubrum Antifungal agents
Authors are greatful to São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) for the financial support: Grants #2016/07196-6 (CY Koga-Ito); #2015/21989-6 (KG Kostov) and fellowship #2014/02354-7 (AC Borges).
ACB and TMCN performed experiments, analyzed data and wrote the paper. GDMGL analyzed data. SDMR performed experiments and analyzed data. KGK designed the study and wrote the paper. GPT carried out FTIR analyses and revised the paper. BRCDM performed FTIR analyses. JPBM conducted SEM analyses. CYK designed the study and wrote the paper.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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