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Mycopathologia

, Volume 183, Issue 6, pp 859–877 | Cite as

Eighty Years of Mycopathologia: A Retrospective Analysis of Progress Made in Understanding Human and Animal Fungal Pathogens

  • Vishnu ChaturvediEmail author
  • Jean-Philippe Bouchara
  • Ferry Hagen
  • Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo
  • Hamid Badali
  • Anamelia Lorenzetti Bocca
  • Jose F. Cano-Lira
  • Cunwei Cao
  • Sudha Chaturvedi
  • Sanjay H. Chotirmall
  • Anne D. van Diepeningen
  • Jean-Pierre Gangneux
  • Jesus Guinea
  • Sybren de Hoog
  • Macit Ilkit
  • Rui Kano
  • Weida Liu
  • Nilce M. Martinez-Rossi
  • Marcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem
  • Mario Augusto Ono
  • Yuping Ran
  • Stephane Ranque
  • Celia Maria de Almeida Soares
  • Takashi Sugita
  • Philip A. Thomas
  • Anna Vecchiarelli
  • Nancy L. Wengenack
  • Patrick C. Y. Woo
  • Jianping Xu
  • Rosely M. Zancope-Oliveira
Editorial

Abstract

Mycopathologia was founded in 1938 to ‘diffuse the understanding of fungal diseases in man and animals among mycologists.’ This was an important mission considering that pathogenic fungi for humans and animals represent a tiny minority of the estimated 1.5–5 million fungal inhabitants on Earth. These pathogens have diverged from the usual saprotrophic lifestyles of most fungi to colonize and infect humans and animals. Medical and veterinary mycology is the subdiscipline of microbiology that dwells into the mysteries of parasitic, fungal lifestyles. Among the oldest continuing scientific publications on the subject, Mycopathologia had its share of ‘classic papers’ since the first issue was published in 1938. An analysis of the eight decades of notable contributions reveals many facets of host–pathogen interactions among 183 volumes comprising about 6885 articles. We have analyzed the impact and relevance of this body of work using a combination of citation tools (Google Scholar and Scopus) since no single citation metric gives an inclusive perspective. Among the highly cited Mycopathologia publications, those on experimental mycology accounted for the major part of the articles (36%), followed by diagnostic mycology (16%), ecology and epidemiology (15%), clinical mycology (14%), taxonomy and classification (10%), and veterinary mycology (9%). The first classic publication, collecting nearly 200 citations, appeared in 1957, while two articles published in 2010 received nearly 150 citations each, which is notable for a journal covering a highly specialized field of study. An empirical analysis of the publication trends suggests continuing interests in novel diagnostics, fungal pathogenesis, review of clinical diseases especially with relevance to the laboratory scientists, taxonomy and classification of fungal pathogens, fungal infections and carriage in pets and wildlife, and changing ecology and epidemiology of fungal diseases around the globe. We anticipate that emerging and re-emerging fungal pathogens will continue to cause significant health burden in the coming decades. It remains vital that scientists and physicians continue to collaborate by learning each other’s language for the study of fungal diseases, and Mycopathologia will strive to be their partner in this increasingly important endeavor to its 100th anniversary in 2038 and beyond.

Introduction

2018 marks the eightieth anniversary of the founding of Mycopathologia (Fig. 1). The founding editors Piero Redaelli and Raffaele Ciferri ‘wanted to diffuse the understanding of fungal diseases in man and animals among mycologists’ [1]. This was a critical mission considering that pathogenic fungi for humans and animals represent a tiny minority of the estimated 1.5–5 million fungal inhabitants on Earth [2]. These pathogens have diverged from the usual saprotrophic lifestyles of most fungi to colonize and infect human and animals. Medical and veterinary mycology is the subdiscipline of microbiology that deals with the mysteries of parasitic, fungal lifestyles. Much is now known about the etiology of fungal infections, and the diagnosis and treatment of fungal diseases due to the pioneering efforts of scientists and physicians. At the beginning of the journal, the availability of expertise was patchy around the globe as were the resources, and the integration with related disciplines remains a work in progress. Mycopathologia, one of the oldest scientific publications on the subject, has served the discipline well by enhancing the awareness and understanding of pathogenic fungi for humans and animals.
Fig. 1

Title page of the first issue of Mycopathologia from 1938

In the early years, Mycopathologia was closely associated with a large group of physicians and scientists responsible for laying the foundation of the ‘modern era of medical mycology.’ Earlier articles by the two former editors-in-chief, commemorating the twenty-fifth and fiftieth anniversaries of Mycopathologia, respectively, detailed the unique personalities of the early editorial teams and the extraordinary challenges they faced during the war years [1]. The narrative style of these editorials gave a rare behind the scene look at the personalities who were crucial during the formative years of the journal. The commemorative approach was common to that of other journals, an excellent example being the write-up of Edsall about the founding of the Journal of Biological Chemistry and its association with key discoveries in the life sciences [3]. For the eightieth anniversary, we decided to follow a different path in the style, wherein the Management Science journal celebrated its fiftieth anniversary by measuring the journal’s metrics [4].

We summarize the most cited publications from the last eight decades of Mycopathologia to gauge the progress made on understanding medically important fungi. We also examined whether the longevity of Mycopathologia has any implications, especially in an era of the phenomenal growth of new journals for medically important fungi. Among the most common journal metrics, the impact factor (IF) and the total number of citations are widely used to gauge the impact on the field even though the citation counts remain an imperfect measurement [5]. We used two citation databases (Google Scholar and Scopus) to ensure good representations of the Mycopathologia articles [6]. This overview did not include non-English articles and articles describing mycotoxins and plant pathogenic fungi as they constitute a small proportion of nearly 6885 articles published in Mycopathologia.

Distribution of High Citations

We tallied 138 articles into six subcategories (Tables 1, 2) with fifty or more citations (Google Scholar or Scopus 1961–2018) (Tables 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). The distribution of the articles was: experimental mycology (36% articles), diagnostic mycology (16%), ecology and epidemiology (15%), clinical mycology (14%), taxonomy and classification (10%), and veterinary mycology (9%) (Fig. 2). The geographic origin of highly cited articles showed that overwhelming numbers came from USA and Europe, which was especially true for the first 50 years of the journal (Fig. 3). Overall, twenty-five countries on four continents accounted for highly cited articles. This picture is evolving as the community and journal witness more contributions from parts of Africa, Asia, Australia, and South America.
Table 1

Most cited articles published in Mycopathologia 1938–1950

 

Title

Year

Subcategory

Citationsa

References

1

The taxonomy of the anascosporous yeast-like fungi

1939

Taxonomy & classification

29/5

[120]

2

Some notes on Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) nov. comb.

1938

Taxonomy & classification

25/10

[121]

3

Trichophyton mentagrophytes (Pinoyella simii) isolated from dermatophytosis in the monkey

1939

Veterinary mycology

25/5

[131]

4

On some sporogenous yeasts and their imperfect stages

1940

Taxonomy & classification

24/11

[122]

5

Cultivation of Malassezia furfur, etiological agent of pityriasis (tinea) versicolor

1938

Diagnostic mycology

20/8

[7]

6

An appeal for unification of the generic taxonomy in the Mycotoruloideae

1940

Taxonomy & classification

16/5

[124]

7

Torulopsis or Cryptococcus?

1938

Taxonomy & classification

14/6

[123]

8

Biological significance of the pseudomycelium in asporogenous yeasts

1943

Experimental mycology

7/3

[26]

9

Are fermentation tests and biochemical characteristics reliable in the differentiation of monilias?

1943

Diagnostic mycology

4/0

[8]

10

The classification of actinomycetes at the 3rd International Congress of Microbiology

1941

Taxonomy & classification

2/44

[141]

aGoogle Scholar/Scopus

Table 2

Most cited articles published in Mycopathologia 1951–1960

 

Title

Year

Subcategory

Citationsa

References

1

In vitro hair cultures for differentiating between atypical isolates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum

1957

Diagnostic mycology

194/60

[9]

2

Isolation of Histoplasma capsulatum from an oil bird (Steatornis caripensis) cave in Venezuela

1960

Ecology & epidemiology

64/17

[115]

3

A method for the rapid identification of the genus Candida

1959

Diagnostic mycology

61/20

[10]

4

Cryptococcus neoformans strains from a severe outbreak of bovine mastitis

1962

Veterinary mycology

41/7

[142]

5

Candida albicans infections in actively and passively immunized animals

1953

Experimental mycology

40/12

[41]

6

Successful infection of pigeons and chickens with Histoplasma capsulatum

1957

Experimental mycology

30/15

[40]

7

Studies of the dimorphism mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

1952

Experimental mycology

14/8

[57]

8

The comparison of four strains of Coccidioides immitis with diverse histories

1957

Experimental mycology

13/5

[42]

9

Effect of yeast extract, peptone, and certain nitrogen compounds on sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

1956

Experimental mycology

11/7

[58]

10

Inhibition of Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro

1959

Experimental mycology

7/2

[27]

aGoogle Scholar/Scopus

Table 3

Most cited articles published in Mycopathologia 1961–1970

 

Title

Year

Subcategory

Citationsa

References

1

Proteolysis and pathogenicity of Candida albicans strains

1969

Experimental mycology

108/33

[76]

2

A taxonomic study in the “black yeasts”

1962

Taxonomy & classification

104/49

[126]

3

Relation of the pigeon to cryptococcosis: natural carrier state, heat resistance and survival of Cryptococcus neoformans

1968

Ecology & epidemiology

101/34

[113]

4

The composition and structure of walls of dark fungus spores

1964

Experimental mycology

87/35

[59]

5

Preparation and properties of the endotoxins of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus

1961

Experimental mycology

77/22

[68]

6

A survey of tide-washed coastal areas of southern California for fungi potentially pathogenic to man

1964

Ecology & epidemiology

65/23

[104]

7

Human pathogenic fungi recovered from Brazilian soil

1964

Ecology & epidemiology

64/21

[103]

8

Detection of antibodies by microtitrator techniques

1967

Diagnostic mycology

62/17

[11]

9

Lytic action of lysozyme on Candida albicans

1970

Experimental mycology

60/20

[28]

10

Biochemical and immunological studies on Aspergillus

1969

Experimental mycology

58/17

[60]

11

Thermophilous fungi of birds’ nests

1967

Ecology & epidemiology

57/24

[116]

12

An evaluation of various environmental factors affecting the propagation of Cryptococcus neoformans

1968

Experimental mycology

55/13

[61]

13

Systematics of yeast species in the Candida parapsilosis group

1967

Taxonomy & classification

52/25

[143]

aGoogle Scholar/Scopus

Table 4

Most cited articles published in Mycopathologia 1971–1980

 

Title

Year

Subcategory

Citationsa

References

1

Serologic aspects on yeast classification

1974

Taxonomy & classification

176/72

[127]

2

Natural history of the dermatophytes and related fungi

1974

Ecology & epidemiology

146/59

[107]

3

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: cell wall structure and virulence

1977

Experimental mycology

125/50

[43]

4

Chemical and immunological properties of galactomannans obtained from Histoplasma duboisii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Blastomyces dermatitidis

1974

Experimental mycology

96/26

[62]

5

Pathogenesis of Paracoccidioidomycosis: a model based on the study of 46 patients

1976

Clinical mycology

92/33

[80]

6

A modern system of Fusarium taxonomy

1974

Taxonomy & classification

91/21

[144]

7

Prevalence of pathogenic fungi in the toe-webs and toe-nails of diabetic patients

1979

Clinical mycology

87/34

[84]

8

Activation of the alternative pathway of complement by Malassezia ovalis (Pityrosporum ovale)

1980

Experimental mycology

80/33

[44]

9

Comparative recoveries of airborne fungus spores by viable and non-viable modes of volumetric collection

1977

Ecology & epidemiology

74/33

[109]

10

Comparison by ELISA of serum anti-Candida albicans mannan IgG levels of a normal population and in diseased patients

1980

Diagnostic mycology

68/25

[13]

11

Counterimmunoelectrophoresis as a routine mycoserological procedure

1975

Diagnostic mycology

50/18

[12]

aGoogle Scholar/Scopus

Table 5

Most cited articles published in Mycopathologia 1981–1990

 

Title

Year

Subcategory

Citationsa

References

1

A characterization of pH-regulated dimorphism in Candida albicans

1984

Experimental mycology

241/97

[63]

2

Decreased virulence in stable, acapsular mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans

1982

Experimental mycology

191/68

[45]

3

Variation in adhesion and cell surface hydrophobicity in Candida albicans white and opaque phenotypes

1988

Experimental mycology

109/40

[64]

4

A survey of dermatophytes isolated from human patients in the United States from 1979 to 1981 with chronological listings of worldwide incidence of five dermatophytes often isolated in the United States

1984

Ecology & epidemiology

91/63

[108]

5

Strain differentiation of pathogenic yeasts by the killer system

1984

Diagnostic mycology

83/34

[14]

6

Fungi in bathwater and sludge of bathroom drainpipes

1987

Ecology & epidemiology

81/45

[118]

7

Studies on a saprophyte of Exophiala dermatitidis isolated from a humidifier

1982

Experimental mycology

80/35

[65]

8

In vivo and in vitro characteristics of six Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains

1985

Experimental mycology

79/48

[46]

9

Experimental pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis in mice: Morphology and correlation of lesions with humoral and cellular immune response

1982

Experimental mycology

78/35

[47]

10

Analysis of restriction profiles of Mitochondrial DNA from Sporothrix schenckii and related fungi

1988

Diagnostic mycology

77/26

[18]

11

Virulence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: The influence of in vitro passage and storage

1990

Experimental mycology

77/39

[48]

12

Preservation of fungi in water (Castellani): 20 years

1989

Diagnostic mycology

73/35

[145]

13

Penicillosis marneffei: Serological and exoantigen studies

1982

Diagnostic mycology

69/29

[15]

14

Effects of iron and desferrioxamine on Rhizopus infection

1990

Experimental mycology

69/28

[56]

15

T-cell dysfunction and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E in paracoccidioidomycosis

1982

Clinical mycology

67/27

[81]

16

Onychomycosis due to saprophytic fungi

1985

Clinical mycology

63/34

[85]

17

Survey of the mycoflora of desert soils in Saudi Arabia

1982

Ecology & epidemiology

61/25

[105]

18

Histopathology of chromoblastomycosis

1989

Clinical mycology

61/30

[88]

19

Keratinophilic fungi isolated from Antarctic soil

1989

Ecology & epidemiology

61/23

[106]

20

Circulating immune complexes and in vitro cell reactivity in paracoccidioidomycosis

1982

Clinical mycology

58/63

[82]

21

Morphogenesis throughout saprobic and parasitic cycles of Coccidioides immitis

1982

Experimental mycology

57/22

[66]

22

Isolation of Phialophora verrucosa and Fonsecaea pedrosoi from nature in Japan

1981

Ecology & epidemiology

56/21

[146]

23

Granuloma formation and killing functions of granuloma in congenitally athymic nude mice infected with Blastomyces dermatitidis and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

1983

Experimental mycology

52/25

[49]

aGoogle Scholar/Scopus

Table 6

Most cited articles published in Mycopathologia 1991–2000

 

Title

Year

Subcategory

Citationsa

References

1

Airborne fungal colony-forming units in outdoor and indoor environments in Yokohama, Japan

1997

Ecology & epidemiology

165/75

[110]

2

Chromoblastomycosis: a retrospective study of 325 cases on Amazonic Region (Brazil)

1998

Clinical mycology

140/74

[89]

3

Differentiation of three biotypes of Malassezia species on human normal skin. Correspondence with M. globosa, M. sympodialis and M. restricta

1999

Diagnostic mycology

91/32

[147]

4

Extracellular proteolytic activity of Cryptococcus neoformans

1994

Experimental mycology

79/34

[69]

5

The time course of responses to intratracheally instilled toxic Stachybotrys chartarum spores in rats

2000

Experimental mycology

74/29

[50]

6

Effect of nucleosides and nucleotides and the relationship between cellular adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and germ tube formation in Candida albicans

1992

Experimental mycology

70/28

[67]

7

Occurrence of Penicillium marneffei infections among wild bamboo rats in Thailand

1995

Ecology & epidemiology

68/30

[117]

8

Microbiological characteristics and susceptibility patterns of strains of Rhodotorula isolated from clinical samples

1999

Diagnostic mycology

66/32

[19]

9

Prevalence, epidemiology and geographical distribution of Sporothrix schenckii infections in Gauteng, South Africa

1997

Ecology & epidemiology

62/32

[148]

10

Phospholipase activity in Cryptococcus neoformans

1996

Experimental mycology

61/25

[70]

11

Clinical isolates of yeast produce a gliotoxin-like substance

1991

Experimental mycology

58/16

[71]

12

Cryptococcus neoformans varieties as agents of cryptococcosis in Brazil

1992

Clinical mycology

58/24

[96]

13

The antifungal action of dandruff shampoos

1999

Experimental mycology

58/22

[29]

14

In vitro activity of a new triazole antifungal agent, Sch 56592, against clinical isolates of filamentous fungi

1998

Experimental mycology

56/26

[30]

15

Effects of dietary sugars and saliva and serum on Candida biofilm formation on acrylic surfaces

1997

Experimental mycology

54/20

[33]

16

Evaluation of two vaccines for the treatment of pythiosis insidiosi in horses

1992

Veterinary mycology

52/27

[149]

17

Mushroom worker’s lung: serologic reactions to thermophilic actinomycetes present in the air of compost tunnels

1993

Clinical mycology

54/22

[150]

18

Hyperthermic treatment of chromomycosis with disposable chemical pocket warmers

1993

Clinical mycology

52/23

[151]

19

Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Sporothrix schenckii in North and South America

1998

Diagnostic mycology

50/22

[17]

aGoogle Scholar/Scopus

Table 7

Most cited articles published in Mycopathologia 2001–2010

 

Title

Year

Subcategory

Citationsa

References

1

Update in antifungal therapy of dermatophytosis

2008

Clinical mycology

281/120

[87]

2

In vitro antifungal activities of voriconazole and reference agents as determined by NCCLS methods: Review of the literature

2001

Diagnostic mycology

278/133

[20]

3

The new species concept in dermatophytes—a polyphasic approach

2008

Taxonomy & classification

211/115

[128]

4

The inhibition of Candida albicans by selected essential oils and their major components

2005

Experimental mycology

191/79

[31]

5

Antifungal resistance mechanisms in dermatophytes

2008

Clinical mycology

177/71

[152]

6

Correlation between gliotoxin production and virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus in Galleria mellonella

2004

Experimental mycology

145/85

[72]

7

Presence of extracellular DNA in the Candida albicans biofilm matrix and its contribution to biofilms

2010

Experimental mycology

145/95

[34]

8

An overview of the immunopathology of human paracoccidioidomycosis

2008

Clinical mycology

130/76

[83]

9

In vitro activity of eugenol against Candida albicans biofilms

2007

Experimental mycology

121/51

[35]

10

Isolation of Malassezia globosa and M. sympodialis from patients with pityriasis versicolor in Spain

2002

Diagnostic mycology

110/40

[153]

11

Isavuconazole: A Comprehensive Review of Spectrum of Activity of a New Triazole

2010

Clinical mycology

109/61

[102]

12

Serologic testing for symptomatic coccidioidomycosis in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts

2006

Clinical mycology

100/64

[101]

13

Biodiversity and concentration of airborne fungi in a hospital environment

2001

Ecology & epidemiology

95/32

[111]

14

Occurrence and population size of Malassezia spp. in the external ear canal of dogs and cats both healthy and with otitis

2005

Veterinary mycology

92/33

[132]

15

Molecular analysis of Malassezia microflora from patients with pityriasis versicolor

2006

Diagnostic mycology

92/51

[16]

16

The use of new probes and stains for improved assessment of cell viability and extracellular polymeric substances in Candida albicans biofilms

2005

Experimental mycology

87/49

[36]

17

Occurrence of yeasts in cloacae of migratory birds

2006

Veterinary mycology

86/53

[137]

18

Serology of paracoccidioidomycosis

2008

Diagnostic mycology

86/35

[154]

19

Sporothrix schenckii isolated from domestic cats with and without sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

2002

Veterinary mycology

85/45

[136]

20

Invasive filamentous fungal infections in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients after recovery from neutropenia: Clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics

2005

Clinical mycology

84/40

[100]

21

Acid proteinase, phospholipase, and biofilm production of Candida species isolated from blood cultures

2007

Experimental mycology

82/43

[155]

22

Isolation and toxigenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus from moldy silage

2003

Ecology & epidemiology

81/44

[119]

23

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolated from the excreta of Psittaciformes in a Southern Brazilian zoological garden

2006

Veterinary mycology

81/35

[138]

24

High rate of Microsporum canis feline and canine dermatophytoses in Northeast Brazil: epidemiological and diagnostic features

2003

Veterinary mycology

76/21

[133]

25

Inhibition on Candida albicans biofilm formation using divalent cation chelators (EDTA)

2007

Experimental mycology

75/34

[37]

26

Dermatophytes isolated from symptomatic dogs and cats in Tuscany, Italy during a 15-year-period

2003

Veterinary mycology

74/33

[134]

27

Fifteen cases of penicilliosis in Guangdong, China

2004

Clinical mycology

74/31

[98]

28

Influence of Th1/Th2 cytokines and nitric oxide in murine systemic infection induced by Sporothrix schenckii

2006

Experimental mycology

71/38

[51]

29

Effect of pre-incubation temperature on susceptibility of Galleria mellonella larvae to infection by Candida albicans

2008

Experimental mycology

71/46

[52]

30

Phospholipase and proteinase activities of clinical isolates of Candida from immunocompromised patients

2006

Experimental mycology

70/42

[73]

31

Examination of potential virulence factors of Candida tropicalis clinical isolates from hospitalized patients

2010

Experimental mycology

70/42

[158]

32

In Vitro investigation of antifungal activity of allicin alone and in combination with azoles against Candida Species

2010

Experimental mycology

66/20

[32]

33

Occurrence of Malassezia species in healthy and dermatologically diseased dogs

2004

Veterinary mycology

65/23

[135]

34

Melanization decreases the susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans to enzymatic degradation

2001

Experimental mycology

64/32

[74]

35

Susceptibility of larvae of Galleria mellonella to infection by Aspergillus fumigatus is dependent upon stage of conidial germination

2006

Experimental mycology

61/44

[54]

36

Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum in São Paulo, Brazil

2004

Clinical mycology

63/29

[86]

37

Metabolite profiles of Stachybotrys isolates from water-damaged buildings and their induction of inflammatory mediators and cytotoxicity in macrophages

2002

Ecology & epidemiology

61/35

[112]

38

Epidemiology and molecular typing of Candida isolates from burn patients

2004

Ecology & epidemiology

61/26

[156]

39

Design of a simple model of Candida albicans biofilms formed under conditions of flow: development, architecture, and drug resistance

2009

Experimental mycology

61/36

[38]

40

Ecology of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi in swimming pools and polluted and unpolluted streams

2003

Ecology & epidemiology

58/22

[157]

41

Etiological Significance of Candida albicans in Otitis Externa

2003

Clinical mycology

58/15

[94]

42

Animal models of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

2002

Experimental mycology

57/19

[55]

aGoogle Scholar/Scopus

Table 8

Most cited articles published in Mycopathologia 2011–2018

 

Title

Year

Subcategory

Citationsa

References

1

Penicillium marneffei infection: an emerging disease in mainland China

2013

Clinical mycology

98/57

[99]

2

Candidiasis: predisposing factors, prevention, diagnosis and alternative treatment

2014

Clinical mycology

88/48

[93]

3

Isavuconazole and nine comparator antifungal susceptibility profiles for common and uncommon Candida Species collected in 2012: application of new CLSI clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values

2014

Diagnostic mycology

88/16

[21]

4

Toward a novel multilocus phylogenetic taxonomy for the dermatophytes

2017

Taxonomy & classification

60/43

[129]

5

Isolation and screening of black fungi as degraders of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons

2013

Experimental mycology

58/37

[75]

6

A Decade of Experience: Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia

2012

Ecology & epidemiology

54/32

[114]

7

Cryptococcosis in China (1985–2010): review of cases from Chinese database

2012

Clinical mycology

54/27

[97]

8

Aspergillus cell wall and biofilm

2014

Experimental mycology

54/38

[39]

9

Challenges in the therapy of chromoblastomycosis

2013

Clinical mycology

53/25

[90]

10

Photodynamic antifungal therapy against chromoblastomycosis

2011

Clinical mycology

52/33

[91]

11

Significance of molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of clinically significant yeasts and moulds in a global antifungal surveillance programme

2012

Diagnostic mycology

51/30

[22]

aGoogle Scholar/Scopus

Fig. 2

Distribution of highly cited (> 50 citations in at least one database) publications from Mycopathologia (1961–2018)

Fig. 3

Geographic distribution of most cited publications in Mycopathologia (1938–2018)

Diagnostic Mycology

The challenges in diagnostic mycology received full attention in the initial issues of Mycopathologia with the focus on the laboratory culture of oleaginous yeasts and the value of assimilation and fermentation tests for yeast identifications (Table 1) [7, 8]. Ajello and George [9] published the all-time classic in vitro hair perforation test for the laboratory differentiation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes from T. rubrum (Table 2). Nearly parallel to this discovery was the demonstration of the utility of monospecific antisera for laboratory identifications of yeasts by Tsuchiya et al. [10]. Further refinements of the serological methods were described such as micro-titration, immunoelectrophoresis, and ELISA (Tables 3, 4) [11, 12, 13]. The differentiation of fungal pathogens was refined by the applications of yeast killer toxins and species-specific exoantigens [14, 15]. Morisita et al. [16] described an early implementation of the culture-independent, molecular diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor by deploying Malassezia species-specific nested PCR test. Another notable innovation was the application of mitochondrial DNA analysis for the typing of Sporothrix schenckii and related fungi (Tables 5, 6) [17, 18]. There were quite a few notable contributions on the laboratory susceptibility testing for antifungals and the relevance of molecular testing in the diagnostic laboratory (Tables 6, 7, 8) [19, 20, 21, 22]. The description of new diagnostic technologies remains a favorite topic of Mycopathologia articles as the discipline moves into exciting areas such as whole genome sequencing, metagenomics, and proteomics [23, 24, 25].

Experimental Mycology

Experimental mycology included nearly one-third of all highly cited articles published in Mycopathologia starting with an article on yeast pseudomycelia in the very first issue (Table 1) [26]. The experimental results described in the journal covered all facets of medically important fungi and experimental disease models. Among the topics covered were antifungals and inhibitors [27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32], biofilms [33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39], immunity and virulence [25, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56], fungal structure, function, and nutrition [26, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67], and fungal metabolites and toxins [68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75]. The most common fungal pathogens investigated were Candida albicans and other Candida species followed by Aspergillus fumigatus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Malassezia species, Rhizopus species, Sporothrix species, and Stachybotrys species. These extensive collections of highly cited publications contain the reports of many trailblazing discoveries. Among the most remarkable publications in experimental mycology was the discovery of a linkage between C. albicans proteolysis and virulence by Staib (Table 3) [76]. Candida proteases are now widely recognized as crucial elements in the infectious processes [77, 78]. Similarly, Buffo et al. [63] described how temperature and pH regulate C. albicans yeast–hyphae transitions (Table 5). The Soll laboratory went on to discover the white-opaque colony phenotype switching, an important developmental pathway with crucial roles in the pathogenesis of candidiasis [79].

Clinical Mycology

Clinical mycology articles with high citations were few and far between in the earlier decades of publication of Mycopathologia most likely because as large case series were not compiled or were published in more clinically oriented journals. The first noteworthy contribution appeared in 1976 on a clinical model of paracoccidioidomycosis based upon a detailed analysis of 46 cases of the disease (Table 4) [80]. The relevance of the clinical model was enhanced subsequently by other investigators with detailed descriptions of the immunopathology of paracoccidioidomycosis [81, 82, 83]. In the early 1970s, an influential publication described the higher prevalence of pathogenic fungi including known agents of onychomycosis in toenails and toe-webs of diabetic patients [84]. Similarly, Vález and Diaz [85] highlighted the role of saprobic fungi as agents of onychomycosis, and Godoy and colleagues [86] highlighted Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum as agents of onychomycosis (Tables 5, 7). Gupta and Cooper [87] had the unique distinction of publishing the highest cited Mycopathologia article to date that described the antifungal therapy of dermatophytosis (Table 7). Uribe et al. [88] characterized the histopathological changes presented at different stages of chromoblastomycosis, a significant tropical disease caused by black molds. A subsequent publication by Silva et al. [89] documented the extent of chromoblastomycosis in Amazon region with a predominance of Fonsecaea pedrosoi (Table 6). Queiroz-Telles and Santos [90] published an expert opinion on the treatment challenges and available options for chromoblastomycosis in resource-poor parts of the world. Finally, a valuable addition to the growing collection of high-impact publications on chromoblastomycosis came from Lyon et al. [91] who showed clinical evidence of the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in ten patients (Table 8). Queiroz-Telles’ group have continued their productive work on chromoblastomycosis with a recent update in Clinical Microbiology Reviews [92].

A relatively recent overview of candidiasis by Martins and colleagues [93] was well received for its emphasis on predisposition, prevention and control, and the role of alternative treatment approaches (Table 8). A brief report on the etiologic role of C. albicans in otitis externa received notable citations given enhanced interests in the multidrug resistance C. auris from aural specimens [94, 95]. The reviews of cryptococcosis in Brazil by Rozenbaum et al. [96] and in China by Chen et al. [97] received high citations (Tables 6, 8). The authors highlighted the distribution of different Cryptococcus pathogenic species and molecular genotypes among patients with or without underlying immune deficiencies. The disease pattern in these geographically diverse countries with large populations differed from earlier knowledge of the disease reported from North America. Xi et al. [98] provided a comprehensive clinical and mycological profile of penicilliosis due to Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei from Guangdong, China, with strong supportive evidence for the natural distribution of the fungus in Southeast China (Table 7). Xi’s group expanded their excellent overview of the penicilliosis by classifying it as an important emerging disease in China [99]. Other notable contributions in clinical mycology were the overview of filamentous fungal infections among patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell therapy, appropriate laboratory diagnostic methods for coccidioidomycosis, and clinical efficacy and relevance of isavuconazole, then a new triazole antifungal (Table 7) [100, 101, 102].

Ecology and Epidemiology

The ecology and epidemiology subcategory articles have few common themes: the natural occurrence of pathogenic fungi in the soil, air, and water in diverse habitats; the association of fungal pathogens with birds and other animals in nature; and the epidemiology of dermatophytosis (Tables 2, 3, 4, 5). The evolving appreciation for the extensive occurrence of pathogenic fungi in soil was reinforced with well-documented reports from California, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, and Antarctica [103, 104, 105, 106]. Ajello’s natural history of dermatophytes and related fungi, a citation classic, is a comprehensive description of the natural habitats of Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton since their earliest recognition in 1847 [107]. Sinski and Flouras [108] provided a global picture of the distribution of dermatophytic fungi by comparing their occurrence in the US patients vis-à-vis clinical reports from other parts of the world. The aerial prevalence of fungal pathogens over cities was reported with sophisticated samplers, and the role of aerial microbiota inside the hospitals and damp buildings was correlated with the occurrence of fungal diseases [109, 110, 111, 112]. Littman and Borok [113] brought scientific rigor to the known association of pigeons with Cryptococcus neoformans by carefully delineating the heat tolerance of the pathogen, its survival in the pigeon body and excreta, and the possible carrier role that pigeons play in the urban environments. Over 40 years later, another notable contribution on cryptococcosis was published and concerned the unique ecological niche of Cryptococcus gattii on trees found on the Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (Table 8) [114]. Additional bird associations were reported for Histoplasma capsulatum from Venezuela and thermophilic fungi with the passerine bird species in Britain [115, 116]. Among other notable publications in ecology and epidemiology were Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei isolated from bamboo rats in Thailand, black yeasts in public bathwater from Japan, and Aspergillus fumigatus in moldy silage on the Azores Islands (Tables 6, 7) [117, 118, 119].

Taxonomy and Classification

Taxonomy and classification especially related to yeasts dominated the initial volumes of Mycopathologia [120, 121, 122, 123], and there was an appeal to unify taxonomy, a theme familiar to many of us even today (Table 1) [124, 125]. However, the high-impact contributions to taxonomy and classification in the coming decades were not that many except for the two remarkable contributions on the black yeasts and the serological approaches to yeast classification based upon cell surface antigens (Table 3) [126, 127]. This subcategory has undergone a sort of rejuvenation in Mycopathologia with two articles in the last decade by Profs. de Hoog, Gräser and their colleagues on the re-appraisal of taxonomy and species concept in dermatophytes (Tables 7, 8) [128, 129]. The very high citations and downloads of the two articles suggested that high-quality communications on the taxonomy and classification of medically important fungi remained relevant as this area is transformed with the applications of genome sequencing [130].

Veterinary Mycology

Veterinary mycology-associated reports first appeared in the inaugural issue of Mycopathologia and concerned a case of simian dermatophytosis (Table 1) [131]. This subcategory remained underrepresented until recently. However, the last decade marked the publication of many important descriptions of dermatophytosis, Malassezia and Sporothrix carriage in dogs and cats, respectively (Table 7) [132, 133, 134, 135, 136]. There were also notable reports on birds as the carriers of yeasts, especially Cryptococcus species [137, 138]. It is clear that veterinary mycology will be crucial in the coming years because of the emerging consensus on One Health approaches for the welfare of the animal and human health [139].

Concluding Remarks

As we conclude this commemorative article, it is pertinent to ask whether Mycopathologia has met its original mission, if the journal is still providing valuable services to the scientists and physicians interested in pathogenic fungi, and finally, what changes will come as Mycopathologia moves toward its hundredth anniversary in 2038? The answer is an emphatic yes! For the first question with an archive of nearly 6885 articles online and in print (Fig. 2), and each issue continuing the tradition of publishing a mix of articles on pathogenic fungi and fungal diseases. The answer to the second question is complicated as there are many more journals and options for sharing new developments on pathogenic fungi. Thus, Mycopathologia has to seek and share interesting articles with other journals. This is easier to implement, as the investigations of pathogenic fungi have grown manifold with a significant upsurge from the authors in Africa, Asia, and South America (Fig. 3). They are also well represented in the Mycopathologia Editorial Board with more than half of the editors coming from the areas outside of Europe and North America as mentioned earlier. Further answers to questions two and three are tied to the technical and business strengths of our publisher Springer Nature. The publisher is at the forefront of technological changes and business evolution, and indeed, Mycopathologia would be a beneficiary from being part of this progressive company. In recent years, the journal has devoted one-third of its pages annually to the special issues, which bring together recognized experts on a selected topic, and this feature will be further enhanced along with a new feature Mycopathologia Images. We anticipate that emerging and re-emerging fungal pathogens will continue to cause significant health burden in the coming decades [140]. It is, therefore, vital that scientists and physicians continue to collaborate by learning each other’s language for the study of fungal diseases, and Mycopathologia will strive to be their partner in this endeavor to its 100th anniversary in 2038 and beyond.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vishnu Chaturvedi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jean-Philippe Bouchara
    • 2
  • Ferry Hagen
    • 3
  • Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo
    • 4
  • Hamid Badali
    • 5
  • Anamelia Lorenzetti Bocca
    • 6
  • Jose F. Cano-Lira
    • 7
  • Cunwei Cao
    • 8
  • Sudha Chaturvedi
    • 1
  • Sanjay H. Chotirmall
    • 9
  • Anne D. van Diepeningen
    • 10
  • Jean-Pierre Gangneux
    • 11
  • Jesus Guinea
    • 12
  • Sybren de Hoog
    • 3
  • Macit Ilkit
    • 13
  • Rui Kano
    • 14
  • Weida Liu
    • 15
  • Nilce M. Martinez-Rossi
    • 16
  • Marcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem
    • 17
  • Mario Augusto Ono
    • 18
  • Yuping Ran
    • 19
  • Stephane Ranque
    • 20
  • Celia Maria de Almeida Soares
    • 21
  • Takashi Sugita
    • 22
  • Philip A. Thomas
    • 23
  • Anna Vecchiarelli
    • 24
  • Nancy L. Wengenack
    • 25
  • Patrick C. Y. Woo
    • 26
  • Jianping Xu
    • 27
  • Rosely M. Zancope-Oliveira
    • 28
  1. 1.New York State Department of Health and University at AlbanyAlbanyUSA
  2. 2.Université Bretagne-LoireAngersFrance
  3. 3.Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity InstituteUtrechtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Instituto Salud Carlos IIIMadridSpain
  5. 5.Mazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  6. 6.University of Brasilia (UnB)BrasílaBrazil
  7. 7.Universitat Rovira i VirgiliReusSpain
  8. 8.Guangxi Medical UniversityNanningChina
  9. 9.Lee Kong Chian School of MedicineSingaporeSingapore
  10. 10.Wageningen University and ResearchWageningenThe Netherlands
  11. 11.Université RennesRennesFrance
  12. 12.Universidad ComplutenseMadridSpain
  13. 13.University of ÇukurovaAdanaTurkey
  14. 14.Nihon University College of Bioresource SciencesFujisawaJapan
  15. 15.Peking Union Medical CollegeNanjingChina
  16. 16.Ribeirão Preto Medical SchoolUniversity of São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil
  17. 17.Adolfo Lutz InstituteSão PauloBrazil
  18. 18.State University of LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  19. 19.Sichuan UniversityChengduChina
  20. 20.Université Aix-MarseilleMarseilleFrance
  21. 21.Universidade Federal de GoiásGoiâniaBrazil
  22. 22.Meiji Pharmaceutical UniversityTokyoJapan
  23. 23.Institute of OphthalmologyJoseph Eye HospitalTiruchirappalliIndia
  24. 24.Università di PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  25. 25.Mayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  26. 26.The University of Hong KongPokfulamHong Kong
  27. 27.McMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  28. 28.Fundação Oswaldo CruzRio de JaneiroBrazil

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