Molecular Genotyping of Candida parapsilosis Species Complex
The Candida parapsilosis complex species has emerged as an important cause of human disease. The molecular identification of C. parapsilosis isolates at the species level can be helpful for epidemiological studies and then for the establishment of appropriate therapies and prophylactic measures.
The present study was undertaken to analyze 13 short tandem repeat (STR) markers (7 minisatellites and 6 microsatellites) in a global set of 182 C. parapsilosis complex isolates from different origins including invasive and superficial clinical sites.
Upon the analysis of 182 strains of C. parapsilosis complex species, 10–17 haplotypes were detected for each minisatellite marker. The combination of 7 minisatellite markers yielded 121 different genotypes with a 0.995 D value. Upon the analysis of 114 isolates (68 from invasive infections and 46 from superficial infections), 21–32 genotypes were detected for each microsatellite marker. The combination of all 13 markers yielded 96 different genotypes among 114 isolates with a high degree of discrimination (0.997 D value).
The same multilocus genotype was shared by isolates recovered from some patients and from the hand of theirs correspondent healthcare worker. For another patient, the same multilocus genotype of C. metapsilosis was detected in blood and skin confirming that candidemia usually arises as an endogenous infection following prior colonization.
These STR markers are a valuable tool for the differentiation of C. parapsilosis complex strains, to support epidemiological investigations especially studies of strain relatedness and pathways of transmission.
KeywordsCandida parapsilosis Candida orthopsilosis Candida metapsilosis STR Genetic diversity Genotyping
We thank Dr Stephane Ranque for Candida parapsilosis reference isolates.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.
- 7.Reiss E, Lasker BA, Lott TJ, Bendel CM, Kaufman DA, Hazen KC, Wade KC, McGowan KL, Lockhart SR. Genotyping of Candida parapsilosis from three neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) using a panel of five multilocus microsatellite markers: broad genetic diversity and a cluster of related strains in one NICU. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12(8):1654–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 10.White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. PCR Protocols Guide Methods Appl. 1990;18:315–22.Google Scholar
- 13.Maiden M, Bygraves J, Feil E, Morelli G, Russell J, Urwin R, Zhang Q, Zhou J, Zurth K, Caugant D, Feavers I, Achtman M, Spratt B. Multilocus sequence typing: a portable approach to the identification of clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(6):3140–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 20.Borman AM, Linton CJ, Oliver D, Palmer MD, Szekely A, Odds FC, Johnson EM. Pyrosequencing analysis of 20 nucleotides of internal transcribed spacer 2 discriminates Candida parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, and Candida orthopsilosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47(7):2307–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 21.Romeo O, Delfino D, Cascio A, Lo Passo C, Amorini M, Romeo D, Pernice I. Microsatellite-based genotyping of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates reveals dominance and persistence of a particular epidemiological clone among neonatal intensive care unit patients. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;13:105–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.da Silva Ruiz L, Montelli AC, Sugizaki Mde F, Da Silva EG, De Batista GC, Moreira D, Paula CR. Outbreak of fungemia caused by Candida parapsilosis in a neonatal intensive care unit: molecular investigation through microsatellite analysis. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2013;30(2):112–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 24.Delfino D, Scordino F, Pernice I, Lo Passo C, Galbo R, David A, Barberi I, Criseo G, Cascio A, Romeo O. Potential association of specific Candida parapsilosis genotypes, bloodstream infections and colonization of health workers’ hands. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20(11):O946–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Chillemi V, Lo Passo C, van Diepeningen AD, Rharmitt S, Delfino D, Cascio A, Nnadi NE, Cilo BD, Sampaio P, Tietz HJ, Peman J, Criseo G, Romeo O, Scordino F. Multilocus microsatellite analysis of European and African Candida glabrata isolates. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;35(6):885–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar