Mycopathologia

, Volume 182, Issue 7–8, pp 665–672 | Cite as

Factors Influencing Non-albicans Candidemia: A Case–Case–Control Study

  • Diamantis P. Kofteridis
  • Antonis Valachis
  • Dimitra Dimopoulou
  • Angeliki M. Andrianaki
  • Athanasia Christidou
  • Sofia Maraki
  • Nikolaos A. Spernovasilis
  • George Samonis
Article

Abstract

The study identified factors predisposing to non-albicans candidemia with special interest to prior antimicrobial treatment. A retrospective, case–case–control study was performed at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Greece, from November 2007 through September 2011 including adult patients. The study had three groups. The first included 58 patients with non-albicans candidemia, the second 48 with C. albicans candidemia, while the third (control) 104 without candidemia. Each of the two candidemia groups was compared with the control using multivariate logistic regression model. The mean (SD) age of the non-albicans, the albicans and the control patients was 67 (12), 67 (18) and 59 (19) years, respectively. The most common non-albicans Candida spp. isolated were C. parapsilosis in 19 patients (33%), C. glabrata in 17 (29%) and C. tropicalis in 15 (26%). Independent risk factors for non-albicans candidemia were prior treatment with quinolones (p < 0.001), b-lactam-b-lactamase inhibitors (p = 0.011) and presence of central venous catheter (p = 0.05), while for C. albicans candidemia were prior treatment with quinolones (p < 0.001), carbapenems (p = 0.003) along with cardiac disease (p < 0.001). Neither duration of hospitalization nor in-hospital mortality [41% for the non-albicans vs 29% for C. albicans group (p = 0.192)] was significantly different between the two candidemia groups. The study reveals the role of antimicrobial exposure as a risk factor for candidemia caused by different species. Prior treatment with b-lactam-b-lactamase inhibitors was associated with non-albicans, while with carbapenems with C. albicans candidemia. Prior use of quinolones was associated with candidemia in general.

Keywords

Candidemia C. albicans Non-albicans Candida spp. Carbapenems b-Lactam-b-lactamase inhibitors Quinolones 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Presented in part at 52nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC). September 9–12, 2012; San Francisco, California.

Funding

This study has been supported by the Hellenic Society for Medical Mycology (Grant number 557A / 07-04-2014).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

None.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diamantis P. Kofteridis
    • 1
  • Antonis Valachis
    • 3
    • 4
  • Dimitra Dimopoulou
    • 1
  • Angeliki M. Andrianaki
    • 1
  • Athanasia Christidou
    • 2
  • Sofia Maraki
    • 2
  • Nikolaos A. Spernovasilis
    • 1
  • George Samonis
    • 1
  1. 1.Infectious Disease Unit, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity Hospital of HeraklionHeraklionGreece
  2. 2.Clinical MicrobiologyUniversity Hospital of HeraklionHeraklionGreece
  3. 3.Department of OncologyMälarsjukhusetEskilstunaSweden
  4. 4.University of UppsalaUppsalaSweden

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