Pseudomembranous Candidiasis in HIV/AIDS Patients in Cali, Colombia
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Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated yeast from the oral cavity of HIV/AIDS individuals. The use of fluconazole has increased the number of resistant or less-sensitive Candida species different than C. albicans. The purpose of this study was to identify the Candida species producing pseudomembranous candidiasis in patients suffering from AIDS, their relationship with CD4+ counts and their sensitivity to fluconazole and itraconazole. We studied 71 patients at a hospital in the city of Cali. Samples of white plaque were seeded on CHROMagar Candida, yeast identification was done with API 20C Aux, and susceptibility testing was determined by E test. Ninety-three yeast isolates were obtained, 52 single and 41 mixed. C. albicans was the most isolated, followed by C. glabrata. An increased frequency of isolates and variety of Candida species occurred in patients with a CD4+ cell count ≤100 cells/mm3 without significant differences (p = 0.29). The susceptibility study showed that 8 (8.6 %) isolates were resistant to fluconazole and 11 (11.8 %) to itraconazole, while 6 (8.8 %) C. albicans were simultaneously resistant. No association was found between the isolates of C. albicans or Candida species different than C. albicans and the use of fluconazole (p = 0.21). The results of this study indicate that in the tested population, fluconazole continues to be the best treatment option for oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients suffering from AIDS (HIV/AIDS); however, susceptibility tests are necessary in patients who present therapeutic failure.