, Volume 175, Issue 5–6, pp 489–495 | Cite as

Chromoblastomycosis in Mainland China: A Systematic Review on Clinical Characteristics

  • Sha Lu
  • Changming Lu
  • Junmin Zhang
  • Yongxuan Hu
  • Xiqing Li
  • Liyan Xi


Chromoblastomycosis is one of the most frequent chronic infections caused by melanized fungi. In order to evaluate the clinical characteristics of chromoblastomycosis in Mainland China, we performed an evidence-based review of published literature. PubMed and Chinese-language database of CNKI, VIP and Wanfang data during January 1990–August 2011 were searched. Epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory findings, therapy and prognosis were analyzed. Cladophialophora carrionii was the most common causative agent in the north of the Mainland China, and Fonsecaea monophora and F. pedrosoi were the most common agents in the southern part of the Mainland China. Infection commonly initiated after the etiologic agents gain entrance through puncture wounds and more common involved extremities of the males. Skin lesions were found in different sites, like the extremities, buttocks, trunk and face, and presented diversity morphology. There were about seven different clinical types found in Mainland China: plaque type, tumoral type, cicatricial type, verrucous type, pseudo-vacuole type, eczymatous type and mixed type of lesions. The success of treatment for chromoblastomycosis was related to the causative agent, the clinical form and severity of the lesions. Most of the patients could be treated successfully with the physical treatment, chemotherapy and/or combination therapy. The itraconazole, terbinafine or a combination of both were commonly medication for these mycosis patients. Physical methods were usually indicated to support chemotherapy with some severe forms and long-lasting cases. Photodynamic therapy has been extended from the oncological field to that of antimicrobial chemotherapy in these years. We applied it on some recalcitrant cases of chromoblastomycosis and found its good clinical response, and hopeful it could be a promising therapy in near future.


Chromoblastomycosis Clinical characteristics Mainland China Treatment 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sha Lu
    • 1
  • Changming Lu
    • 1
  • Junmin Zhang
    • 1
  • Yongxuan Hu
    • 1
  • Xiqing Li
    • 1
  • Liyan Xi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial HospitalSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina

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