, 169:1 | Cite as

Divergence Among an International Population of Trichophyton tonsurans Isolates

  • Susan M. Abdel-Rahman
  • Takashi Sugita
  • Gloria M. González
  • David Ellis
  • Michalis Arabatzis
  • Loranne Vella-Zahra
  • Calude Viguié-Vallanet
  • Masataro Hiruma
  • J. Steven Leeder
  • Barry Preuett


Trichophyton tonsurans is a widely distributed pathogen that demonstrates a significant degree of genetic and phenetic heterogeneity. To date, the degree of genetic relatedness among geographically segregated isolates has not been explored. This investigation evaluates the extent of genetic variation among an international population of T. tonsurans isolates and examines the relatedness of isolates within and between countries. Molecular strain typing was performed on 198 isolates obtained from 14 countries. A mixed-marker strategy utilizing 27 sequence variations in 13 gene loci was applied to all isolates and cluster analysis was performed to examine the relationship between strains. Phylogenetic analysis was used to corroborate the findings of the cluster analysis with T. equinum strains serving as an out-group. In total, 47 distinct strain types were identified represented by seven clusters and one singleton. There appeared to be a moderate degree of clustering among isolates obtained from North America, Asia and Australia, although European isolates were uniformly distributed among the majority of clusters. The degree of genetic variation observed in this study coupled with the geographic localization would support the argument for allopatric divergence within this species.


Dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans Trichophyton equinum Strain typing 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan M. Abdel-Rahman
    • 1
  • Takashi Sugita
    • 2
  • Gloria M. González
    • 3
  • David Ellis
    • 4
  • Michalis Arabatzis
    • 5
  • Loranne Vella-Zahra
    • 6
  • Calude Viguié-Vallanet
    • 7
  • Masataro Hiruma
    • 8
  • J. Steven Leeder
    • 1
  • Barry Preuett
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Medical ToxicologyChildren’s Mercy HospitalKansas CityUSA
  2. 2.Meji Pharmaceutical UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo LeónMonterryMexico
  4. 4.Women’s and Children’s HospitalNorth AdelaideAustralia
  5. 5.Medical School, University of AthensAthensGreece
  6. 6.Clinpath Medical LaboratoriesMsidaMalta
  7. 7.Hôpital TarnierParisFrance
  8. 8.Juntendo University Nerima HospitalNerima-kuJapan

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