, Volume 166, Issue 5–6, pp 335–352 | Cite as

Updates on the Epidemiology of Dermatophyte Infections

  • Claus SeebacherEmail author
  • Jean-Philippe Bouchara
  • Bernard Mignon


The spectrum of dermatophytes isolated from skin lesions had changed in last 70 years. Before the Second World War in Germany, Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum ranked the first, whereas Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte since the fifties of last century, accounting for 80–90% of the strains, followed by T. mentagrophytes. This evolution is typical for Central and North Europe and it needs to be connected with the increase in the incidence of tinea pedis. In contrast, in Southern Europe and in Arabic countries, zoophilic dermatophytes, such as Microsporum canis or Trichophyton verrucosum, are the most frequently isolated. In Europe, especially in Mediterranean countries, the incidence of M. canis infection has strongly increased during the recent years and this dermatophyte is now the most prevalent in tinea capitis in children. An analysis of the frequency and distribution of tinea pedis in different occupations and leisure-time activities as well as the routes of infection are reported. The spreading of this disease in most developed countries of the world represents a considerable economic problem, since it was accompanied by a parallel increase in the frequency of onychomycosis which implies, as tinea pedis, large financial charges. In poor developing countries, mycoses appear endemically, primarily with children, and their treatment often fails because of the lack of efficient antifungals. The particular epidemiological situations of dermatophytoses and the pathogenic spectrum of dermatophytes are examined at the example of numerous countries.


Dermatophyte spectrum Epidemiology Onychomycosis Tinea pedis Tinea capitis 


  1. 1.
    Karrenberg CL. Die norddeutsche Pilzflora. Ergebnisse eigener Untersuchungen mit Bemerkungen über die Epidemiologie der Dermatomykosen speziell in Hamburg. 90. Versammlung der Ges. Dtsch. Naturforscher und Ärzte in Hamburg, 21. Sept. 1928. Dermatol Wschr. 1928;87:1927–30.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Götz H. Klinische und experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Hautpilzkrankheiten im Gebiet von Hamburg 1948–195. Arch Dermatol Syph. 1952;195:1–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blaschke-Hellmessen R, Haufe U, Seebacher C. Statistischer Bericht über die Dermatophytenflora bei Dermatomykosen in der DDR von 1967 bis 1971. Dermatol Monatsschr. 1975;161:433–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Elsner P, Hartmann AA, Kohlbeck M. Dermatophytoses in Würzburg 1976–1985. Mykosen 1987;30:584–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tietz HJ, Kunzelmann V, Schoenian G. Changes in the fungal spectrum of dermatomycoses. Mycoses 1995;38 (Suppl. 1):33–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Langer H. Epidemiologische und klinische Untersuchungen bei Onychomykosen. Beitrag zur Berliner Pilzflora 1954–1956. Arch Klin Exp Dermatol. 1957;204:624–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buchvald J, Simaljaková M. The occurrence of dermatophytes in Slovakia. Mycoses 1995;38:159–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kuklová I, Kucerová H. Dermatophytoses in Prague, Czech Republic, between 1987 and 1998. Mycoses 2001;44:493–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kaszuba A, Seneczko F, Lipowczan G, Bienias L, Kostusiak M, Lupa S. Fungal flora in human skin and skin appendages infections in the region of Lódz, Poland. Mycoses 1998;41:249–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nowicki R. Dermatophytoses in the Gdansk area, Poland: a 12-year survey. Mycoses 1996;39:399–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dolenc-Voljc M. Dermatophyte infections in the Ljubljana region, Slovenia, 1995–2002. Mycoses 2005;48:181–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Babic-Erceg A, Barisic Z, Erceg M, Babic A, Borzic E, Zoranic V, Kaliterna V. Dermatophytoses in Split and Dalmatia, Croatia, 1996–2002. Mycoses 2004;47:297–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Devliotou-Panagiotidou D, Koussidou-Eremondi T, Badillet G. Dermatophytosis in Northern Greece during the decade 1981–1990. Mycoses 1995;38:151–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maraki S, Tselentis Y. Dermatophytoses in Crete, Greece, between 1992 and 1996. Mycoses 1998;41:175–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Terragani L, Lasagni A, Oriani A. Dermatophytes and dermatophytoses in the Milan area between 1970–1989. Mycoses 1993;36:313–7.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mercantini R, Moretto D, Palamara G, Mercantini P, Marsella R. Epidemiology of dermatophytoses observed in Rome, Italy, between 1985 and 1993. Mycoses 1995;38:415–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lehenkari E, Silvennoinen-Kassinen S. Dermatophytes in northern Finland in 1982–90. Mycoses 1995;38:411–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Burri CH, Hany M. Zur Epidemiologie der Dermatphytosen in der Region Zürich. Akt Dermatol. 1986;12:128–32.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kostanje MJ, Staats CCG. Fungal infections in the Netherlands. Dermatology 1995;190:39–42.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Monod M, Jaccoud S, Zaugg C, Lechenne B, Baudraz F, Panizzon R. Survey of dermatophyte infections in the Lausanne area Switzerland. Dermatology 2002;205:201–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sinski JT, Flouras KA. A survey of dermatophytes isolated from human patients in the United States from 1979 to1981. Mycopathologia 1984;85:97–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sinski JT, Kelley LM. A survey of dermatophytes isolated from human patients in the United States from 1982 to1984. Mycopathologia 1987;98:35–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sinski JT, Kelley LM. A survey of dermatophytes isolated from human patients in the United States from 1985 to1987. Mycopathologia 1991;114:117–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Weitzmann I, Chin N-X, Kunjukunju N, Della-Latta P. A survey of dermatophytes isolated from human patients in the United States from 1993 to1995. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;39:255–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Welsh O, Welsh E, Ocampo-Candiani J, Gomez M, Vera-Cabrera L. Dermatophytoses in Monterrey, Mexico. Mycoses 2006;49:119–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aste N, Pau M, Aste N, Biggio P. Tinea pedis observed in Cagliari, Italy, between 1996 and 2000. Mycoses 2003;46:38–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Romano C, Gianni C, Difonzo EM. Retrospective study of onychomycosis in Italy: 1985–2000. Mycoses 2005;48:42–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Falahati M, Akhlaghi L, Lari AR, Alaghehbandan R. Epidemiology of dermatophytoses in the area of Tehran, Iran. Mycopathologia 2003;156:279–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chadeganipour M, Shadzi S, Dehghan P, Movahed M. Prevalence and aetiology of dermatophytoses in Isfahan, Iran. Mycoses 1997;40:321–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jahromi SB, Khaksar AA. Aetiological agents of tinea capitis in Tehran (Iran). Mycoses 2006;49:65–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ellabib MS, Khalifa Z, Kavanagh K. Dermatophytes and other fungi associated with skin mycoses in Tripoli, Libya. Mycoses 2002;45:101–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mahmoud AL. A study of dermatophytoses in Sana’a, Yemen Republic. Mycoses 2002;45:105–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ali-Shtayeh MS, Arda HM, Abu-Ghdeib SI. Epidemiological study of tinea capitis in schoolchildren in the Nablus area (West Bank). Mycoses 1998;41:243–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Woldeamanuel Y, Leekassa R, Chryssanthou E, Menghistu Y, Petrini B. Prevalence of tinea capitis in Ethiopian schoolchildren. Mycoses 2005;48:137–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Woldeamanuel Y, Menghistu Y, Chryssanthou E, Petrini B. Dermatophytosis in Tulugudu Island, Ethiopia. Med Mycol. 2005;43:79–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ayanbimpe GH, Bello CSS, Gugnani HC. The aetiological agents of superficial cutaneous mycoses in Jos, Plateau State of Nigeria. Mycoses 1995;38:235–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nweze EI. Etiology of dermatophytoses amongst children in northeastern Nigeria. Med Mycol. 2001;39:181–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schmeller W, Baumgartner S, Dzikus A. Dermatophytomycoses in children in rural Kenya: the impact of primary health care. Mycoses 1997;40:55–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Oyeka CA, Ugwu LO. Fungal flora of human toe webs. Mycoses 2002;45:488–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pönnighaus JM, Clayton Y, Warndorff D. The spectrum of dermatophytes in northern Malawi (Africa). Mycoses 1996;39:293–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Djeridane A, Djeridane Y, Ammar-Khodja A. Epidemiological study on tinea pedis and onychomycosis in Algeria. Mycoses 2006;49:190–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Foster KW, Ghannoum MA, Elewski BE. Epidemiologic surveillance of cutaneous fungal infection in United States from 1999 to 2002. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004; 50:748–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vázquez M, Sánchez JL. A clinical and mycologic study of tinea corporis and pedis in Puerto Rico. Int J Dermatol. 1984;23:550–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Abeck D, Haneke E, Nolting S, Reinel D, Seebacher C. Onychomykose. Dt Ärztebl. 2000;97:A1984–6.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Götz H, Hantschke D. Einblicke in die Epidemiologie der Dermatomykosen im Kohlenbergbau. Hautarzt 1965;16:543–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gentles JC, Holmes JG. Foot ringworm in coal-miners. Br J Ind Med. 1957;14:22–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sturde HC, Meier H. Untersuchungsbericht über die Morbidität an Tinea pedis (Epidermophytie) bei Soldaten der Bundeswehr. Z Hautkrankh. 1961;31:345–1.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Marchlewitz B, Zucker G. Ein Beitrag zur Verbreitung der Dermatomykosen in der Nationalen Volksarmee. Z Milit Med. 1965;6:351–60.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Prinz L. Die Epidemiologie und Prophylaxe der Tinea pedis im Chemiewerk “Friedrich Engels”, Premnitz. [Dissertation], Med. Fakultät, Humboldt-Universität Berlin; 1980.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Göpfert U. Zur Mykosehäufigkeit in einem Schlacht- und Verarbeitungsbetrieb. [Dissertation], Akademie für Ärztliche Fortbildung der DDR, Berlin; 1988.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Noguchi H, Hiruma M, Kawada A, Ishibashi A, Kono S. Tinea pedis in members of the Japanese Self-Defence Forces: relationships and width of interdigital spaces. Mycoses 1995;38:495–9.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Brocks KM, Johansen UB, Jorgensen HO, Reymann Ravnborg L, Svejgaard EL. Tinea pedis and onychomycosis in Danish soldiers before and after service in ex-Yugoslavia. Mycoses 1999;42:475–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Maruyama R, Hiruma M, Yamauchi K, Teraguchi S, Yamaguchi H. An epidemiological and clinical study of untreated patients with tinea pedis within a company in Japan. Mycoses 2003;46:208–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sahin I, Kaya D, Parlak AH, Oksuz S, Behcet M. Dermatophytoses in forestry and farmers. Mycoses 2005;48:260–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Auger P, Marquis G, Joly J, Attye A. Epidemiology of tinea pedis in marathon runners: prevalence of occult athlete’s foot. Mycoses 1993:36:35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lacroix C, Baspeyras M, de La Salmoniere P, Benderdouche M, Couprie B, Accoceberry I, Well FX, Derouin F, Feuilhade de Chauvin M. Tinea pedis in European marathon runners. Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2002;16:139–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ries J. Mykosen und Sport – Verbreitung von Mykosen bei sportschuhtragenden Sportlern. [Dissertation], Frankfurt am Main: Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität; 2002. p. 35–7.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gentles JC, Evans EGV. Foot infections in swimming baths. Br Med J. 1973;3(5874):260–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gentles JC, Evans EGV, Jones GR. Control of tinea pedis in a swimming bath. Br Med J. 1974;2(5919):578–80.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Trivino-Duran L, Torres-Rodriguez JM, Martinez-Roig A, Cotina C, Belver V, Perez-Gonzalez M, Jansa JM. Prevalence of tinea capitis and tinea pedis in Barcelona schoolchildren. Pediat Infect Dis J. 2005;24:137–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sugimoto R, Katoh T, Nishioka K. Isolation of dermatophytes from house dust on a medium containing gentamicin and flucytosine. Mycoses 1995;38:405–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Maruyama R, Katoh T, Nishioka K. Demonstration of dermatophyte dissemination from the infected soles using the foot-press method. Mycoses 1998;41:145–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Watanabe K, Taniguchi H, Katoh T. Adhesion of dermatophytes to healthy feet and its simple treatment. Mycoses 2000;43:45–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Detandt M, Nolard N. Fungal contamination of the floors of swimming pools, particularly subtropical swimming paradises. Mycoses 1995;38:509–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bobichon H, Dufour-Morfaux F, Pitort V. In vitro susceptibility of public swimming pool fungi of three desinfectans. Mycoses 1993;36:305–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Goksugur N, Karabay O, Kocoglu E. Mycological flora of the Hammams, traditional Turkish bath. Mycoses 2006;49:411–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Roberts DT. Prevalence of dermatophyte onychomycosis in the United Kingdom: results of an omnibus survey. Br J Dermatol. 1992;126 (Suppl. 39):23–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sais G, Jucglà A, Peyrí J. Prevalence of dermatophyte onychomycosis in Spain: a cross-sectional study. Br J Dermatol. 1995;132:758–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Heikkilä H, Stubb S. The prevalence of onychomycosis in Finland. Br J Dermatol. 1995;133:699–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Seebacher C. Untersuchungen über die Pilzflora kranker und gesunder Zehennägel. Mykosen 1968;11:893–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gupta AK, Jain HC, Lynde CW, Watteel GN, Summerbell RC. Prevalence and epidemiology of unsuspected onychomycosis in patients visiting dermatologists´offices in Ontario, Canada – a multicenter survey of 2001 patients. Int J Dermatol. 1997;36:783–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Svejgaard EL, Nilsson J. Onychomycosis in Denmark: prevalence of fungal nail infection in general practice. Mycoses 2004;47:131–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Summerbell RC, Cooper E, Bunn U, Jamieson F, Gupta AK. Onychomycosis: a critical study of techniques and criteria for confirming the etiologic significance of non dermatophytes. Med Mycol. 2005;43:39–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Schwinn A, Ebert J, Bröcker EB. Frequency of Trichophyton rubrum in tinea capitis. Mycoses 1995;38:1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tietz HJ, Czaika V, Ulbricht HM, Sterry W. Tinea capitis in Germany. A survey in 1998. Mycoses 1999;42(Suppl 2):73–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hällgren J,Petrini B, Wahlgren CF. Increasing tinea capitis prevalence in Stockholm reflects immigration. Med Mycol. 2004;42:505–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Aste N, Pau M, Biggio P. Tinea capitis in children in the district of Cagliari, Italy. Mycoses 1997;40:231–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Flammia M, Vannini P, Difonzo EM. Tinea capitis in the Florence area between 1985 and 1996. Mycoses 1995;38:325–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rubio-Calvo C, Gil-Tomas J, Rezusta-Lopez A, Benito-Ruesca R. The aetiological agents of tinea capitis in Zaragoza (Spain). Mycoses 2001;44:55–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cuetara MS, de Palacio A, Pereiro M, Amor E, Alvarez C, Noriega AR. Prevalence of undetected tinea capitis in a school survey in Spain. Mycoses 1997;40:131–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Devliotou-Panagiotidou D, Koussidou-Eremondi T, Chaidemenos GC, Theodoridou M, Minas A. Tinea capitis in adults during 1981–95 in Northern Greece. Mycoses 2001;44:389–400.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Koussidou-Eremondi T, Devliotou-Panagiotidou D, Mourellou-Tsatsou O, Minas A. Epidemiology of dermatomycoses in children living in Northern Greece 1996–2000. Mycoses 2005;48:11–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ali-Shtayeh MS, Salameh AAM, Abu-Ghdeib SI, Jamous RM, Khraim H. Prevalence of tinea capitis as well as of asymptomatic carriers in school children in Nablus area (Palestine). Mycoses 2002;45:188–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Al-Duboon AH, Muhsin TM, AL-Rubaiy KK. Tinea capitis in Basrah, Iraq. Mycoses 1999;42:331–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sidat MM, Correia D, Buene TB. Tinea capitis among rural school children of the district of Uagude, in Maputo province, Mozambique. Mycoses 2006;49:480–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Marchisio VF, Gallo MG, Tullio V, Nepote S, Piscozzi A, Cassinelli C. Dermatophytes from cases of skin disease in cats and dogs in Turin, Italy. Mycoses 1995;38:239–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Cafarchia C, Romito D, Sasanelli M, Lia R, Capelli G, Otranto D. The epidemiology of canine and feline dermatophytoses in southern Italy. Mycoses 2004;47:508–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Khosravi AR. Fungal flora of the hair coat of stray cats in Iran. Mycoses 1996;39:241–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Castañón-Olivares LR, Manzano-Gayosso P, López-Martínez R, De la Rosa-Velázquez IA, Soto-Reyes-Solís E. Effectiveness of terbinafine in the eradication of Microsporum canis from laboratory cats. Mycoses 2001;44:95–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Seebacher C, Abeck D, Brasch J, Cornely O, Daeschlein G, Effendy I, Ginter-Hanselmayer G, Haake N, Hamm G, Hipler UC, Hof H, Korting HC, Kramer A, Mayser P, Ruhnke M, Schlacke KH, Tietz HJ. Guideline tinea capitis. JDDG 2006;4:1085–92. English online version at Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wildfeuer A, Faergemann J, Laufen H, Pfaff G, Zimmermann T, Seidl HP, Lach P. Bioavailability of fluconazole in the skin after oral medication. Mycoses 1994;37:127–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gupta AK, Grooen K, Woestenborghs R, De Doncker P. Itraconazole pulse therapy is effective in the treatment of Majocchi’s granuloma: a clinical and pharmacokinetic evaluation and implications for possible effectiveness in tinea capitis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1998;23:103–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kielstein P, Richter W. Zur Prophylaxe der Rindertrichophytie durch aktive Immunisierung. Mhefte Vet Med. 1970; 25:334–7.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kielstein P, Wolf F. Zur Bekämpfung der bovinen Dermatophytosis als Voraussetzung zur Senkung menschlicher Berufserkrankungen in der Landwirtschaft. Z ärztl Fortbild. 1991;85:533–8.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rybnikár A, Vrzal V, Chumela J. Protective efficacy of vaccines against bovine dermatophytosis after double and single vaccination. Mycoses 1998;41:83–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Aly R. Ecology and epidemiology of dermatophyte infections. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;31:21–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lunder M, Lunder M. Is Microsporum canis infection about to become a serious dermatological problem? Dermatology 1992;184:87–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Svejgaard EL. Epidemiology of dermatophytes in Europe. Int J Dermatol. 1995;34:525–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claus Seebacher
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jean-Philippe Bouchara
    • 3
    • 4
  • Bernard Mignon
    • 5
  1. 1.Formerly Dermatological Clinic of Dresden Friedrichstadt Municipal HospitalDresdenGermany
  2. 2.DresdenGermany
  3. 3.Host-Pathogen Interaction Study GroupUPRES-EA 3142, Angers UniversityAngersFrance
  4. 4.Laboratory of Parasitology-MycologyAngers University HospitalAngersFrance
  5. 5.Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of LiègeLiegeBelgium

Personalised recommendations