Mycopathologia

, Volume 162, Issue 6, pp 395–400

In vitro antifungal efficacy of ciclopirox olamine alone and associated with zinc pyrithione compared to ketoconazole against Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta reference strains

  • Christine Roques
  • Sabine Brousse
  • Cédric Panizzutti
Article

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro fungicidal and growth inhibitory activity of ciclopirox olamine alone (1% and 1.5%) or in association with 1% zinc pyrithione compared to 2% ketoconazole, against Malassezia species particularly involved in the pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis. Experiments were performed on Malassezia globosa IP 2387.96 and M. restricta IP 2392.96 strains. Growth inhibitory activity of the active compounds in solution was evaluated by measuring minimal inhibitory concentrations using a broth micro-method and their fungicidal activity by a filtration method after contact times between solutions and yeasts ranging from 3–5 to 30 min. Concerning the determination of minimal inhibitory concentration of ciclopirox olamine/zinc pyrithione, it revealed the marked synergistic inhibitory effect of the association, leading to a higher efficacy compared to ketoconazole. As to the fungicidal activity of ciclopirox olamine, it significantly increased with the contact time. After 15–30 min of contact between 1.5% ciclopirox olamine and Malassezia strains, a 2-log reduction of Malassezia counts was observed. The 1.5% ciclopirox olamine/1% zinc pyrithione association was characterized by a steady fungicidal efficacy whereas the 2% ketoconazole solution did not express any fungicidal effect. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the in vitro inhibitory and fungicidal efficacy of the ciclopirox olamine/zinc pyrithione association against Malassezia species and underscores its potential interest in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

Keywords

ciclopirox olamine fungicidal agent growth inhibition Malassezia zinc pyrithione 

Abbrevations

SD

Seborrheic dermatitis

CPO

Ciclopirox olamine

ZP

Zinc pyrithione

MIC

Minimal Inhibitory Concentration

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Gupta, AK, Bluhm, R. 2004Seborrheic dermatitisJ Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol181326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gupta AK, Batra R, Bluhm R et al. Skin diseases associated with Malassezia species. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004; 785–798.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gupta, AK, Nicol, K. 2004The use of sulphur in dermatologyJ Drugs Dermatol3427431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Skinner, RB, Noah, PW, Taylor, RM,  et al. 1985Double blind treatment of seborrheic dermatitis with 2% ketoconazole creamJ Am Acad Dermatol12852856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pierard-Franchimont, C, Hermanns, JF, Degreef, H,  et al. 2000From axioms to new insights into dandruffDermatology2009398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nakabayashi, A, Sei, Y, Guillot, J. 2000Identification of Malassezia species isolated from patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor and normal subjectsMed Mycol38337341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Faergemann, J 2002Atopic dermatitis and fungiClin Microbiol Rev15545563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Makimura, K, Tamura, Y, Kudo, M,  et al. 2000Species identification and strain typing of Malassezia species stock strains and clinical isolates based on the DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 regionsJ Med Microbiol492935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sugita, T, Suto, H, Unno, T,  et al. 2001Molecular analysis of molecular microflora on the skin of atopic dermatitis patients and healthy subjectsJ Clin Microbiol3934863490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gemmer, CM, Angelis, YM, Theelen, B,  et al. 2002Fast, non-invasive method for molecular detection and differentiation of Malassezia yeast species on human skin and application of the method to dandruff microbiologyJ Clin Microbiol4033503357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Johnson, BA, Nunley, JR. 2000Treatment of seborrheic dermatitisAm Fam Physician6127032710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Peter, RU, Richarz-Barthauer, U. 1995Successful treatment and prophylaxis of scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis and dandruff with 2% ketoconazole shampoo: results of a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialBr J Dermatol132441445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pierard-Franchimont, C, Pierard, GE, Arrese, JE, Doncker, P 2001Effect of ketoconazole 1% and 2% shampoos on severe dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis: clinical, squamometric and mycological assessmentsDermatology202171176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gupta, AK, Bluhm, R. 2004Ciclopirox shampoo for treating seborrheic dermatitisSkin Therapy Lett945Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee, JH, Eunc, HC, Cho, KH. 2003Successful treatment of dandruff with 1.5% ciclopirox olamine shampoo in KoreaJ Dermatolog Treat14212214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abeck, D. 2004Rational of frequency of use of ciclopirox 1% shampoo in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis: Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the efficacy of once, twice, and three times weekly usageInt J Dermatol43S13S16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lebwohl, M, Plott, T. 2004Safety and efficacy of ciclopirox 1% shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp in the US population : Results of a double-blind, vehicle-controlled trialInt J Dermatol43S17S20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pierard-Franchimont, C, Goffin, V, Decroix, J,  et al. 2002A multicenter randomized trial of ketoconazole 2% and zinc pyrithione 1% shampoos in severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitisSkin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol15434441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marks, R, Pearse, AD, Walker, AP. 1985The effects of a shampoo containing zinc pyrithione on the control of dandruffBr J Dermatol112415422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Squire, RA, Goode, K 2002A randomised, single-blind, single-centre clinical trial to evaluate comparative clinical efficacy of shampoos containing ciclopirox olamine (1.5%) and salicyclic acid (3%), or ketoconazole (Nizoral®) for the treatment of dandruff/seborrhoeic dermatitisJ Dermatolog Treat135160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Saple, DG, Ravichandran, G, Desai, A. 2000Evaluation of safety and efficacy of ketoconazole 2% and zinc pyrithione 1% shampoo in patients with moderate to severe dandruff – a postmarketing studyJ Indian Med Assoc98810811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pierard-Franchimont, C, Pierard, GE, Vroome, V,  et al. 2000Comparative anti-dandruff efficacy between a tar and a non-tar shampooDermatology200181184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    AFNOR. Recueil des normes “Antiseptiques et désinfectants” 1991Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Markus, A 1999

    Hydroxy-pyridones: Outstanding biological properties

    Shuster, S. eds. Hydroxy-pyridones as antifungal agents with special emphasis on onychomycosisSpringerBerlin110
    Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Reitze, HK, Seitz, KA, Dannhorn, DR 1999

    Enzyme histochemical investigations of Candida albicans after treatment with rilopirox, a novel fungicidal hydroxyl-pyridone

    Shuster, S. eds. Hydroxy-pyridones as antifungal agents with special emphasis on onychomycosisSpringerBerlin1117
    Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Niewerth, M, Schaller, M, Korting, HC, Hube, B. 2002Mode of action of ciclopiroxolamine on Candida albicansMycoses456368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jue, SG, Dawson, GW, Brogden, RN 1985Ciclopirox Olamine 1% cream. A preliminary review of its antimicrobial activity and therapeutic useDrugs29330341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hanel H, Smith-Kurtz E, Pastowsky S. Therapy of seborrheic eczema with an antifungal agent with an antiphlogistic effect. Mycoses 34 suppl 1991; 1: 91–93.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jomard, P, Luc, J, Roques, C. 2004In vitro fungicidal efficacy of ciclopiroxJ Mycol Med147882Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Velegraki, A, Alexopoulos, EC, Kriticou, S,  et al. 2004Use of fatty acid RPMI 1640 media for testing susceptibilities of eight Malassezia species to the new triazole posaconazole and to six established antifungal agents by a modified NCCLS M27-A2 microdilution method and EtestJ Clin Microbiol4235893593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Altemeyer, P, Hoffmann, K. 2004Efficacy of different concentrations of ciclopirox shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp: Results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trialInt J Dermatol43S9S12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Warner, RR, Schwartz, JR,  et al. 2001Dandruff has an altered stratum corneum ultrastructure that is improved with zinc pyrithione shampooJ Am Acad Dermatol45897903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sandtröm Falk, MH, Tengvall Linder, M, Johansson, C, Bartosik, J, Bäck, O, Särnhult, T, Wahlgren, CF, Scheynius, A, Faergemann, J. 2005The prevalence of Malassezia yeasts in patients with atopic dermatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis and healthy controlsActa Derm Venereol851723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bulmer, AC, Bulmer, GS 1999The antifungal action of dandruff shampoosMycopathologia1476365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mayser, P, Argembeaux, H, Rippke, F. 2003The hair strand test – a new method for testing antifungal effects of antidandruff preparationsJ Cosmet Sci54263270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lorette, G, Ermosilla, V. 2006Clinical efficacy of a new ciclopiroxolamine/zinc pyrithione shampoo in scalp seborrheic dermatitis treatmentEur J Dermatol.1617Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine Roques
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sabine Brousse
    • 1
  • Cédric Panizzutti
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesFONDEREPHARToulouseFrance
  2. 2.Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesLaboratory of Bacteriology, Virology and Industrial MicrobiologyToulouse cedex 4France

Personalised recommendations