Multibody System Dynamics

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 7–35 | Cite as

A robust two-stage active disturbance rejection control for the stabilization of a riderless bicycle

  • Mauro Baquero-Suárez
  • John Cortés-RomeroEmail author
  • Jaime Arcos-Legarda
  • Horacio Coral-Enriquez


In this work we propose a two-stage observer-based feedback control approach to automatically stabilizing a riderless bicycle in its upright position when moving forward at a constant speed. Our strategy uses a modern control approach called Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC), based on Generalized Proportional Integral (GPI) extended observers, to estimate a unified signal that groups all the discrepancies between an adopted linear model and the actual behavior of the plant. These estimations are used in the feedback controller as an additive, close cancellation and terms devising proper output feedback control laws that linearly regulate the lean angle with respect to its upright position. From a control-design perspective, the bicycle is a perturbed, uncertain system with an unstable and non-linear behavior that is strongly forward speed dependent. The ADRC scheme allows one to solve this problem easily by using a control strategy based on an acceptable mathematical model derived from lumped-parameter analysis, and its effectiveness has been validated by the successful results from real implementation experiments on an instrumented bicycle prototype. A detailed description of all the stages of the mechatronics process design is included for a proper reference.


Autonomous bicycle Non-linear systems Active disturbance rejection control Generalized proportional integral control Disturbance observers Bicycle robot 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mauro Baquero-Suárez
    • 1
    • 2
  • John Cortés-Romero
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jaime Arcos-Legarda
    • 1
  • Horacio Coral-Enriquez
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringNational University of ColombiaBogotá D.C.Colombia
  2. 2.Engineering FacultyUniversity of San BuenaventuraBogotá D.C.Colombia

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