Multibody System Dynamics

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 403–429 | Cite as

A dynamic model of polyethylene damage in dry total hip arthroplasties: wear and creep

  • Ehsan AskariEmail author
  • Michael S. Andersen


The creep and wear of ultra-high-weight polyethylene hip prostheses under physiological conditions are studied in the present research work. A fully integrated contact-coupled dynamic model based upon multibody dynamics methodology is developed, allowing the evaluation of not only sliding distance, but also contact mechanics as well as cross-shear effects and both average pressure and in-service duration associated with the creep phenomenon. In vivo forces and motions of hip joint are used as input for the dynamic simulation, which result in more realistic contact point trajectory and contact pressure, and consequently wear and creep, compared to simplified inputs. The analysis also takes into account inertia forces due to hip motion, tribological properties of bearing bodies, and energy loss owing to contact-impact events. The principal molecular orientation (PMO) of the polyethylene cup is determined through an iterative algorithm and dynamic outcomes. Archard’s wear law is also integrated into the multibody dynamics model for wear prediction in hip implants. Creep, besides wear, is attributed to polyethylene damage, which is investigated by implementing a creep model extracted from experimental data. The model is validated using clinical data and numerical results available from previously published studies. It is shown that creep plays a significant role in hip damage along with wear, both of which can be influenced by hip parameters, e.g., hip and clearance sizes. Moreover, the creep mechanism according to creep experiment is discussed, and contributing factors to the wear phenomenon are analyzed throughout this study.


Multibody dynamics Tribology Total hip replacement Contact mechanics 



This work was supported by the Sapere Aude program of the Danish Council for Independent Research under grant number DFF-4184-00018.


  1. 1.
    Kurtz, S., Ong, K., Lau, E., Mowat, F., Halpern, M.: Projections of primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty in the United States from 2005 to 2030. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 89(4), 780–785 (2007) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Canadian Joint Replacement Registry 2014 Annual Report. Canadian Institute for Health Information, Canada (2014) Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    NJR 10th Annual Report 2013. National Joint Registry UK (2013) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Askari, E., Flores, P., Dabirrahmani, D., Appleyard, R.: A review of squeaking in ceramic total hip prostheses. Tribol. Int. 93, 239–256 (2016) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liu, F., Fisher, J., Jin, Z.: Computational modelling of polyethylene wear and creep in total hip joint replacements: effect of the bearing clearance and diameter. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J J. Eng. Tribol. 226(6), 552–563 (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Turell, M., Wang, A., Bellare, A.: Quantification of the effect of cross-path motion on the wear rate of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Wear 255(7–12), 1034–1039 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clarke, I.C., Good, V., Williams, P., Schroeder, D., Anissian, L., Stark, A., Oonishi, H., Schuldies, J., Gustafson, G.: Ultra-low wear rates for rigid-on-rigid bearings in total hip replacements. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H J. Eng. Med. 214(4), 331–347 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bevill, S.L., Bevill, G.R., Penmetsa, J.R., et al.: Finite element simulation of early creep and wear in total hip arthroplasty. J. Biomech. 38, 2365–2374 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dumbleton, J.H., Manley, M.T., Edidin, A.A.: A review of the association between wear rate and osteolysis in total hip arthroplasty. J. Arthroplast. 17, 649–661 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Affatato, S., Taddei, P., Carmignato, S., Modena, E., Toni, A.: Severe damage of alumina-on-alumina hip implants: wear assessments at a microscopic level. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 32(14), 3647–3657 (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nevelos, J.E., Ingham, E., Doyle, C., Nevelos, A.B., Fisher, J.: Wear of HIPed and non-HIPed alumina–alumina hip joints under standard and severe simulator testing conditions. Biomaterials 22, 2191–2197 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dowson, D., Jin, Z.: Metal-on-metal hip joint tribology. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H J. Eng. Med. 220, 107–118 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maxian, T.A., Brown, T.D., Pedersen, D.R., Callaghan, J.J.: A sliding-distance-coupled finite element formulation for polyethylene wear in total hip arthroplasty. J. Biomech. 29(5), 687–692 (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Raimondi, M.T., Santambrogio, C., Pietrabissa, R., Raffelini, F., Molfetta, L.: Improved mathematical model of the wear of the cup articular surface in hip joint prostheses and comparison with retrieved components. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H J. Eng. Med. 215(4), 377–391 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kang, L., Galvin, A.L., Brown, T.D., et al.: Quantification of the effect of cross-shear on the wear of conventional and highly cross-linked UHMWPE. J. Biomech. 41(2), 340–346 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goreham-Voss, C.M., Hyde, P.J., Hall, R.M., et al.: Cross shear implementation in sliding-distance-coupled finite element analysis of wear in metal-on-polyethylene total joint arthroplasty: intervertebral total disc replacement as an illustrative application. J. Biomech. 43(9), 1674–1681 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu, F., Galvin, A., Jin, Z., Fisher, J.: A new formulation for the prediction of polyethylene wear in artificial hip joints. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H J. Eng. Med. 225(1), 16–24 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang, A., Essner, A., Klein, R.: Effect of contact stress on friction and wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene in total hip replacement. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H J. Eng. Med. 215(H2), 133–139 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mattei, L., Di Puccio, F., Ciulli, E.: A comparative study of wear laws for soft-on-hard hip implants using a mathematical wear model. Tribol. Int. 63, 66–77 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barbour, P.S.M., Barton, D.C., Fisher, J.: The influence of stress conditions on the wear of UHMWPE for total joint replacements. J. Mater. Sci., Mater. Med. 8(10), 603–611 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kang, L., Galvin, A.L., Brown, T.D., Fisher, J., Jin, Z.: Wear simulation of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene hip implants by incorporating the effects of cross-shear and contact pressure. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H J. Eng. Med. 222(H7), 1049–1064 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kang, L., Galvin, A.L., Fisher, J., Jin, Z.: Enhanced computational prediction of polyethylene wear in hip joints by incorporating cross-shear and contact pressure in additional to load and sliding distance: effect of head diameter. J. Biomech. 42(7), 912–918 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Teoh, S.H., Chan, W.H., Thampuran, R.: An elasto-plastic finite element model for polyethylene wear in total hip arthroplasty. J. Biomech. 35(3), 323–330 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hegadekatte, V., Huber, N., Kraft, O.: Finite element based simulation of dry sliding wear. Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 13, 57–75 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sfantos, G.K., Aliabadi, M.H.: Total hip arthroplasty wear simulation using the boundary element method. J. Biomech. 40, 378–389 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kang, L., Galvin, A.L., Jin, Z., Fisher, J.: A simple fully integrated contact-coupled wear prediction for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene hip implants. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H J. Eng. Med. 220, 33–46 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Askari, E., Flores, P., Dabirrahmani, D., Appleyard, R.: Dynamic modeling and analysis of wear in spatial hard-on-hard couple hip replacements using multibody systems methodologies. Nonlinear Dyn. (2015) Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mukras, S., Kim, N.H., Sawyer, W.G., Jackson, D.B., Bergquist, L.W.: Numerical integration schemes and parallel computation for wear prediction using finite element method. Wear 266, 822–831 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Askari, E., Flores, P., Dabirrahmani, D., Appleyard, R.: Nonlinear vibration and dynamics of ceramic on ceramic artificial hip joints: a spatial multibody modelling. Nonlinear Dyn. 76, 1365–1377 (2014) MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Archard, J.F.: Contact and rubbing of flat surfaces. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 981–988 (1953) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Barbour, P.S.M., Stone, M.H., Fisher, J.: A hip joint simulator study using simplified loading and motion cycles generating physiological wear paths and rates. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H J. Eng. Med. 213(6), 455–467 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Saikko, V., Calonius, O., Kernen, J.: Effect of slide track shape on the wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene in a pin-on-disk wear simulation of total hip pros thesis. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., Part B, Appl. Biomater. 69B(2), 141–148 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ramamurti, B., Bragdon, C.R., O’Connor, D.O., Lowenstein, J.D., Jasty, M., Estok, D.M., Harris, W.H.: Loci of movement of selected points on the femoral head during normal gait: three-dimensional computer simulation. J. Arthroplast. 11(7), 845–852 (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Saikko, V., Calonius, O.: Slide track analysis of the relative motion between femoral head and acetabular cup in walking and hip simulator. J. Biomech. 35(4), 455–464 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jourdan, F., Samida, A.: An implicit numerical method for wear modelling applied to a hip joint prosthesis problem. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 198, 2209–2217 (2009) CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Askari, E., Flores, P., Dabirrahmani, D., Appleyard, R.: Wear prediction of ceramic-on-ceramic artificial hip joints. In: Flores, P., Viadero, F. (eds.) New Trends in Mechanism and Machine Science, from Fundamentals to Industrial Applications. Springer, Berlin (2015) Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Scholes, S.C., Unsworth, A., Goldsmith, A.A.J.: A frictional study of total hip joint replacements. Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3721–3735 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chan, F.W., Bobyn, J.D., Medley, J.B., Krygier, J.J., Tanzer, M.: The Otto Aufranc Award. Wear and lubrication of metal-on-metal hip implants. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 369, 10–24 (1999) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Essner, A., Sutton, K., Wang, A.: Hip simulator wear comparison of metal-on-metal, ceramic-on-ceramic and cross-linked UHMWPE bearings. Wear 259(7–12), 992–995 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wang, A., Sun, D.C., Yau, S.S., Edwards, B., Sokol, M., Essner, A., et al.: Orientation softening in the deformation and wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Wear 203–204, 230–241 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang, A., Essner, A., Polineni, V.K., Stark, C., Dumbleton, J.H.: Lubrication and wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene in total joint replacements. Tribol. Int. 31(1–3), 17–33 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wang, A.: A unified theory of wear for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene in multi-directional sliding. Wear 248(1–2), 38–47 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lee, K.Y., Pienkowski, D.: Compressive creep characteristics of extruded ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 39, 261–265 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ramamurti, B., Estok, D.M., Bragdon, C.R., Weinberg, E.A., Jasty, M., Harris, W.H.: Dimensional changes in metal-backed polyethylene acetabular cups under cyclic loading. In: Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Orthopedic Research Society, Anaheim, CA (1999) Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Davidson, J.A., Schwartz, G.: Wear, creep, and frictional heat of femoral implant articulating surfaces and the effect on long-term performance—Part I, review. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 21, 261–285 (1987) Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Askari, E., Flores, P., Dabirrahmani, D., Appleyard, R.: Study of the friction-induced vibration and contact mechanics of artificial hip joints. Tribol. Int. 70, 1–10 (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Flores, P., Lankarani, H.M.: Spatial rigid-multi-body systems with lubricated spherical clearance joints: modeling and simulation. Nonlinear Dyn. 60, 99–114 (2010) CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Flores, P., Ambrósio, J., Claro, J.C.P., Lankarani, H.M.: Spatial revolute joints with clearance for dynamic analysis of multibody systems. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Proc., Part K, J. Multi-Body Dyn. 220(4), 257–271 (2006) Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Flores, P., Ambrosio, J., Claro, J.C.P., Lankarani, H.M.: Dynamics of multibody systems with spherical clearance joints. J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn. 1, 240–247 (2006) CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bartel, D.L., Burstein, A.H., Toda, M.D., Edwards, D.L.: The effect of conformity and plastic thickness on contact stress in metal-backed plastic implants. J. Biomech. Eng. 107, 193–199 (1985) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Di Puccio, F., Mattei, L.: Biotribology of artificial hip joints. World J. Orthop. 6(1), 77–94 (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mukras, S., Kim, N.H., Mauntler, N.A., Schmitz, T., Sawyer, W.G.: Comparison between elastic foundation and contact force models in wear analysis of planar multibody system. J. Tribol. 132(3), 031604 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Põdra, P., Andersson, S.: Wear simulation with the Winkler surface model. Wear 207, 79–85 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Johnson, K.L.: Contact Mechanics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1985) CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Li, G., Sakamoto, M., Chao, E.Y.S.: A comparison of different methods in predicting static pressure distribution in articulating joints. J. Biomech. 30, 635–638 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bei, Y., Fregly, B.J.: Multibody dynamic simulation of knee contact mechanics. Med. Eng. Phys. 26, 777–789 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    An, K.N., Himenso, S., Tsumura, H., Kawai, T., Chao, E.Y.S.: Pressure distribution on articular surfaces: application to joint stability analysis. J. Biomech. 23, 1013–1020 (1990) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hunt, K.H., Crossley, F.R.E.: Coefficient of restitution interpreted as damping in vibroimpact. J. Appl. Mech. 7, 440–445 (1975) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gilardi, G., Sharf, I.: Literature survey of contact dynamics modelling. Mech. Mach. Theory 37, 1213–1239 (2002) MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Machado, M., Flores, P., Ambrósio, J., Completo, A.: Influence of the contact model on the dynamic response of the human knee joint. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Proc., Part K, J. Multi-Body Dyn. 225(4), 344–358 (2011) Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Alves, J., Peixinho, N., Tavares da Silva, M., Flores, P., Lankarani, H.M.: A comparative study of the viscoelastic constitutive models for frictionless contact interfaces in solids. Mech. Mach. Theory 85, 172–188 (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gonthier, Y., McPhee, J., Lange, C., Piedboeuf, J.C.: A regularized contact model with asymmetric damping and dwell-time dependent friction. Multibody Syst. Dyn. 11, 209–233 (2004) CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zhang, Y., Sharf, I.: Compliant force modeling for impact analysis. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ASME International Design Technical Conferences, Salt Lake City, Paper No. DETC2004-572202004 Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Flores, P., Machado, M., Silva, M.T., Martins, J.M.: On the continuous contact force models for soft materials in multibody dynamics. Multibody Syst. Dyn. 25(3), 357–375 (2011) CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tian, Q., Flores, P., Lankarani, H.M.: A comprehensive survey of the analytical, numerical and experimental methodologies for dynamics of multibody mechanical systems with clearance or imperfect joints. Mech. Mach. Theory 122, 1–57 (2018) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Koshy, C.S., Flores, P., Lankarani, H.M.: Study of the effect of contact force model on the dynamic response of mechanical systems with dry clearance joints: computational and experimental approaches. Nonlinear Dyn. 73(1–2), 325–338 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tian, Q., Zhang, Y., Chen, L., Flores, P.: Dynamics of spatial flexible multibody systems with clearance and lubricated spherical joints. Comput. Struct. 87(13–14), 913–929 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ambrosio, J.: Rigid and flexible multibody dynamics tools for the simulation of systems subjected to contact and impact conditions. Eur. J. Mech. A, Solids 19, S23–44 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Askari, E., Flores, P., Dabirrahmani, D., Appleyard, R.: A computational analysis of squeaking hip prostheses. J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn. 10(2), 024502 (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Atkinson, K.A.: An Introduction to Numerical Analysis, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York (1989) zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Braunovic, M., Konchits, V.V., Myshkin, N.K.: Electrical Contacts: Fundamental, Applications and Technology. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Flores, P.: Modeling and simulation of wear in revolute clearance joints in multibody systems. Mech. Mach. Theory 44, 1211–1222 (2009) CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Khonsari, M.K., Booser, E.R.: Applied Tribology: Bearing Design and Lubrication. Wiley, Hoboken (2017) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gill, H.S., Waite, J.C., Short, A., Kellett, C.F., Price, A., Murray, D.W.: In vivo measurement of volumetric wear of a total knee replacement. The Knee 13, 312–317 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Allen, M.J., Hartmann, S.M., Sacks, J.M., Calabrese, J., Brown, P.R.: Technical feasibility and precision of radiostereometric analysis as an outcome measure in canine cemented total hip replacement. J. Orthop. Sci. 9(1), 66–75 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Askari, E., Flores, P., Dabirrahmani, D., Appleyard, R.: Dynamic modeling and analysis of wear in artificial hip articulations. In: 2015 IFToMM World Congress Proceedings Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hamilton, M.A., Sucec, M.C., Fregly, B.J., Banks, S.A., Sawyer, W.G.: Quantifying multidirectional sliding motions in total knee replacements. J. Tribol. 127, 280–286 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, AAOS. [accessed 20.07.2017]
  79. 79.
    Fregly, B.J., Sawyer, W.G., Harman, M.K., Banks, S.A.: Computational wear prediction of a total knee replacement from in vivo kinematics. J. Biomech. 28, 305–314 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bergmann, G., Deuretzbacher, G., Heller, M., Graichen, F., Rohlmann, A., Strauss, J., Duda, G.N.: Hip contact forces and gait patterns from routine activities. J. Biomech. 34(7), 859–871 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gao, Y., Jin, Z., Wang, L., Wang, M.: Finite element analysis of sliding distance and contact mechanics of hip implant under dynamic walking conditions. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H J. Eng. Med. 229(6), 469–474 (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kang, L., Galvin, A.L., Jin, Z., et al.: A simple fully integrated contact-coupled wear prediction for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene hip implants. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H J. Eng. Med. 220, 33–46 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Livermore, J., Ilstrup, D., Morrey, B.: Effect of femoral head size on wear of the polyethylene acetabular component. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 72(4), 518–528 (1990) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Maxian, T.A.: Development and application of a finite element formulation for estimating sliding wear in total hip arthroplasty. PhD Thesis, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA (1997) Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Atkinson, J.R., Dowson, D., Isaac, J.H., Wroblewski, B.M.: Laboratory wear tests and clinical observations of the penetration of femoral heads into acetabular cups in total replacement hip joints. Wear 104, 225–244 (1985) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hall, R.M., Unsworth, A., Siney, P., Wroblewski, B.M.: Wear in retrieved Charnley acetabular sockets. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 210, 197–207 (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chen, J.H., Wu, J.S.S.: Measurement of polyethylene wear—a new three-dimensional methodology. Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 68, 117–127 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wu, J.S.S., Hung, J.P., Shu, C.S., Chen, J.H.: The computer simulation of wear behavior appearing in total hip prosthesis. Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 70, 81–91 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Fialho, J.C., Fernandes, P.R., Eca, L., Folgado, J.: Computational hip joint simulator for wear and heat generation. J. Biomech. 40(11), 2358–2366 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Liu, F., Fisher, J., Jin, Z.: Effect of motion inputs on the wear prediction of artificial hip joints. Tribol. Int. 63, 105–114 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Galvin, A.L., Tipper, J.L., Jennings, L.M., et al.: Wear and biological activity of highly crosslinked polyethylene in the hip under low serum protein concentrations. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H J. Eng. Med. 221, 1–10 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Charnley, J., Halley, D.K.: Rate of wear in total hip replacement. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 112, 170–179 (1975) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dai, X., Omori, H., Okumura, Y., et al.: Serial measurement of polyethylene wear of well-fixed cementless metalbacked acetabular component in total hip arthroplasty: an over 10 year follow-up study. Artif. Organs 24, 746–751 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sychterz, C.J., Engh, C.A., Young, A.M., Hopper, R.H., Charles, A.: Comparison of in vivo wear between polyethylene liners articulating with ceramic and cobalt-chrome femoral heads. J. Bone Jt. Surg., Br. Vol. 82, 948–951 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Thomas, G.E., Simpson, D.J., Mehmood, S., et al.: The seven-year wear of highly cross-linked polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial using radiostereometric analysis. J. Bone Jt. Surg., Am. 93, 716–722 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Glyn-Jones, S., McLardy-Smith, P., Gill, H.S., Murray, D.W.: The creep and wear of highly cross-linked polyethylene. J. Bone Jt. Surg., Br. Vol. 90, 556–561 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Gao, L., Dowson, D., Hewson, R.W.: Predictive wear modeling of the articulating metal-on-metal hip replacements. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., Part B, Appl. Biomater. 105(3), 497–506 (2017) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Askari, E., Jeong, K.H., Amabili, M.: Hydroelastic vibration of circular plates immersed in a liquid-filled container with free surface. J. Sound Vib. 332(12), 3064–3085 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials and ProductionAalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark

Personalised recommendations