Advertisement

Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 185–199 | Cite as

Estimating creep deformation of glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate

  • Takenobu SakaiEmail author
  • Satoshi Somiya
Article

Abstract

Thermoplastic resin and fiber-reinforced thermo-plastics (FRTPs) were used without post-cure treatment as “molded material.” For such materials, creep behavior and physical aging occur simultaneously. This study examined the creep behavior of polycarbonate (PC) and glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate (GFRPC) injection moldings, including the effect of physical aging and fiber content, and determined that the time–temperature superposition principle could be applied to the creep behavior for different fiber contents. The effects of physical aging on creep behavior were evaluated quantitatively on pure resin and with various fiber contents without heat treatment. We found that the effect of physical aging could be evaluated with the proposed factor, “aging shift rate.” To discuss the linearity of viscoelasticity in FRTPs, this study used two shift factors: time and modulus shift factors. The fiber content affected creep behavior by both retarding and restraining it through changing the elastic modulus. This was shown by generating a grand master curve of creep compliance, which included the effects of time, temperature, and fiber content. Using the grand master curve of creep compliance and shift factors, it was possible to estimate the creep deformation of molded materials under varying conditions and fiber contents. The estimated creep deformation gave a very good fit to the experimental creep deformation.

Keywords

Polycarbonate Creep compliance Glass fiber composites Time–temperature superposition principle Physical aging Estimation method Aging shift rate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bernatz, K.M., Girl, L., Simon, S.L., Plazek, D.J. Physical aging by periodic creep and interrupted creep experiments. J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2235–2241 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Biswas, K.K., Ikeda, M., Somiya, S.: Study on creep behavior of glass fiber reinforced polycarbonate. Adv. Compos. Mater. 10, 265–273 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biswas, K.K., Somiya, S., Endo, J.: Study of the effect of aging progression on creep behavior of PPE composite. J. Mech. Time-Dependent Mater. 3, 335–350 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Biswas, K.K., Somiya, S.: Effect of isothermal physical aging on creep behavior of stainless–fiber/PPE composites. Mater. Sci. Res. Int. 7, 172–177 (2001)Google Scholar
  5. Brinson, L.C., Gates, T.S.: Effect of physical aging on long term creep of polymers and polymer matrix composites. Int. J. Solids Struct. 32, 827–846 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cangialosi, D., Schut, H., van Veen, A., Picken, S.J.: Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy for measuring free volume during physical aging of polycarbonate. Macromolecules 36, 142–147 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Drozdov, A.D.: The nonlinear viscoelastic response of glassy polymers subjected to physical aging. Macromol. Theory Simul. 10, 491–506 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hutchinson, J.M., Smith, S., Horne, B., Gourlay, G.M.: Physical aging of polycarbonate: enthalpy relaxation, creep response, and yielding behavior. Macromolecules 32, 5046–5061 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jong, S.R., Yu, T.L.: Physical aging of poly(ether sulfone)-modified epoxy resin. J. Polym. Sci.: Part B: Polym. Phys. 35, 69–83 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Knauss, W.G., Emri, I.: Volume change and the nonlinearly thermo-viscoelastic constitution of polymers. Polym. Eng. Sci. 27, 86–100 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kunio, T.: Mechanical behavior of visco-elastic body dependent on time and temperature–fundamentals of visco-elasticity. Mater. Syst. 6, 7–9 (1987) (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  12. Soloukhin, V.A., Brokken-Zijp, J.C.M., van Asselen, O.L.J., de With, G.: Physical aging of polycarbonate: elastic modulus, hardness, creep, endothermic peak, molecular weight distribution, and infrared data. Macromolecules 36, 7585–7597 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Struik, L.C.E.: Physical Ageing in Amorphous Polymers and Other Materials. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., New York (1978)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science and TechnologyKeio UniversityKanagawaJapan

Personalised recommendations