Generalize the EMD scheme on an n-dimensional hypercube with maximum payload

  • Hui-Shih Leng
  • Hsien-Wen TsengEmail author


Data hiding is concerned with hiding secret data in cover media without raising suspicion about the existence of such information. In 2006, Zhang and Wang proposed a novel efficient steganographic method by exploiting modification direction (EMD). The EMD scheme provides little distortion and good stego-image quality. Then Kieu and Chang improved the EMD scheme by using eight modification directions for embedding more secret data at a time, and achieves payload with 4.5 bpp. In this study, a generalize EMD scheme is proposed based on an n-dimensional hypercube. It provides more higher payload. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves payload with 4.75 bpp, which is better than any other published works while keeps good visual quality.


Data hiding Exploiting modification direction (EMD) n-dimensional hypercube 



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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsChanghua University of EducationChanghua CityTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Information ManagementChaoyang University of TechnologyTaichungTaiwan

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