Stereoscopic oil paintings from RGBD images
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Stroke-based rendering is one of the major approaches for creating synthetic paintings, but with only a minor attention so far to stereo painting synthesis. In this article, a fully automatic stereoscopic oil-painting synthesis algorithm is proposed, which takes a photograph and a depth map as input, and generates a pair of oil-painting style, stereo-viewable paintings. Common drawbacks of existing stroke-based rendering results are impressions of repetition and flatness due to the regularity of the used 2D stroke patterns. To reduce these impressions, the proposed approach introduces the concepts of a defocused image, a complexity map, a point map, and a direction map. Those maps serve as important references for decision making and thus, are the foundation for the entire painting simulation process. The key feature of making the developed stroke-based algorithm different from others is that it generates a unique 3D brushstroke according to the characteristics of a local image region. This has greatly reduced the undesirable machine-like appearance in the resulting image. Moreover, a comfortable stereo-viewing experience is assured by the proposed stereo painting and hole-filling strategies. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is applicable to a wide variety of image subjects and different depth distributions.
KeywordsStroke-based rendering Painterly rendering Stereo painting synthesis
Special thanks to Prof. Reinhard Klette for valuable suggestions and critical comments. Thanks also to Dr. Dongwei Liu for support regarding the depth-map generation of images in Figs. 3 (pavilion) and 9 (mountain trail).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interests
This study was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST 104-2221-E-197-020-MY2). Fay Huang is a member of Chinese Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Society (IPPR, Taiwan). She worked as a postdoctoral fellow at Institute of Information Science, Academic Sinica, Taiwan, from 2003 to 2004. She was also a consultant of Smart System Institute, Institute for Information Industry, Taiwan, in 2017. Bo-Ru Huang declares that he has no conflict of interest.
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