Advertisement

Layered non-photorealistic rendering with anisotropic depth-of-field filtering

  • Jong-Hyun Kim
  • Jung LeeEmail author
Article
  • 70 Downloads

Abstract

In this paper, we provide a layered non-photorealistic rendering (NPR) technique that automatically extracts the depth of field (DoF) shown in the picture and adjusts the degree of abstraction accordingly. We use an RGB channel to efficiently classify the DoF region anisotropically. Based on the DoF values, we abstract the color and adjust the thickness of the line. We use anisotropic DoF-based filtering to improve the abstraction quality by finding the blur region using cross-correlation filtering and anisotropically calculating the weight map. Our approach has greatly improved the quality of abstraction in terms of performance and design. The algorithm is also fast and simple to implement. Experimental results show well the characteristics and style of the DoF of the original photograph.

Keywords

Anisotropic depth of field Image abstraction Non-photorealistic rendering Image processing 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Canny J (1986) A computational approach to edge detection. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 6:679–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Collomosse JP, Hall PM (2003) Cubist style rendering from photographs. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 9(4):443–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Collomosse JP, Hall PM (2006) Video motion analysis for the synthesis of dynamic cues and futurist art. Graph Model 68(5–6):402–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Comaniciu D, Meer P (2002) Mean shift: a robust approach toward feature space analysis. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 24(5):603–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    DeCarlo D, Santella A (2002) Stylization and abstraction of photographs. In: ACM transactions on graphics (TOG), vol 21, pp 769–776Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    DeCarlo D, Finkelstein A, Rusinkiewicz S, Santella A (2003) Suggestive contours for conveying shape. ACM Trans Graph (TOG) 22(3):848–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Deussen O, Hiller S, Van Overveld C, Strothotte T (2000) Floating points: a method for computing stipple drawings. In: Computer graphics forum, vol 19, pp 41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Durand F, Ostromoukhov V, Miller M, Duranleau F, Dorsey J (2001) Decoupling strokes and high-level attributes for interactive traditional drawing. In: Rendering techniques 2001, pp 71–82Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fels S, Mase K (1999) Interactive video cubism. In: Workshop on new paradigms in information visualization and manipulation, pp 78–82Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Finkelstein A, Range M (1998) Image mosaics. In: International conference on raster imaging and digital typography, pp 11–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fischer J, Bartz D, Straber W (2005) Stylized augmented reality for improved immersion. In: Virtual reality, 2005. Proceedings. VR 2005. IEEE, pp 195–202Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gal R, Sorkine O, Popa T, Sheffer A, Cohen-Or D (2007) 3d collage: expressive non-realistic modeling. In: Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on non-photorealistic animation and rendering, pp 7–14Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gooch B, Coombe G, Shirley P (2002) Artistic vision: painterly rendering using computer vision techniques. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on non-photorealistic animation and rendering, pp 83–ffGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gooch B, Reinhard E, Gooch A (2004) Human facial illustrations: creation and psychophysical evaluation. ACM Trans Graph (TOG) 23(1):27–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hausner A (2001) Simulating decorative mosaics. In: Proceedings of the 28th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, pp 573–580Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hays J, Essa I (2004) Image and video based painterly animation. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on non-photorealistic animation and rendering, pp 113–120Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hertzmann A (1998) Painterly rendering with curved brush strokes of multiple sizes. In: Proceedings of the 25th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, pp 453–60Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Isenberg T, Freudenberg B, Halper N, Schlechtweg S, Strothotte T (2003) A developer’s guide to silhouette algorithms for polygonal models. IEEE Comput Graph Appl 23(4):28–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kalnins RD, Davidson PL, Markosian L, Finkelstein A (2003) Coherent stylized silhouettes. In: ACM Transactions on graphics, vol 22, pp 856–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kang H, Lee S, Chui CK (2009) Flow-based image abstraction. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 15(1):62–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaplan CS, Salesin DH (2000) Escherization. In: Proceedings of the 27th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, pp 499–510Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Klein A, Sloan P, Colburn A, Finkelstein A, Cohen MF (2001) Video cubism. Technical Report MSR-TR-2001-45Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Klein A, Grant T, Finkelstein A, Cohen MF (2002) Video mosaics. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on non-photorealistic animation and rendering, pp 21–26Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Klein A, Sloan PPJ, Finkelstein A, Cohen MF (2002) Stylized video cubes. In: Proceedings of the 2002 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics symposium on computer animation, pp 15–22Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Litwinowicz P (1997) Processing images and video for an impressionist effect. In: Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, pp 407–414Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marr D, Hildreth E (1980) Theory of edge detection. Proc R Soc London B: Biol Sci 207(1167):187– 217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mi X, DeCarlo D, Stone M (2009) Abstraction of 2d shapes in terms of parts. In: Proceedings of the 7th international symposium on non-photorealistic animation and rendering, pp 15–24Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Morel J, Alvarez L, Galerne B, Gousseau Y (2006) Texture synthesis by abstract painting techniqueGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mureika JR, Dyer C, Cupchik G (2005) Multifractal structure in nonrepresentational art. Phys Rev E 72(4):046,101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Orchard J, Kaplan CS (2008) Cut-out image mosaics. In: Proceedings of the 6th international symposium on non-photorealistic animation and rendering, pp 79–87Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Orzan A, Bousseau A, Barla P, Thollot J (2007) Structure-preserving manipulation of photographs. In: Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on non-photorealistic animation and rendering, pp 103–110Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ostromoukhov V (1999) Digital facial engraving. In: Proceedings of the 26th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, pp 417–424Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Raskar R, Ilie A, Yu J (2004) Image fusion for context enhancement and video surrealism. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on non-photorealistic animation and rendering, pp 85–152Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Salisbury MP, Anderson SE, Barzel R, Salesin DH (1994) Interactive pen-and-ink illustration. In: Proceedings of the 21st annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, pp 101–108Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Salisbury MP, Wong MT, Hughes JF, Salesin DH (1997) Orientable textures for image-based pen-and-ink illustration. In: Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, pp 401–406Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Secord A (2002) Weighted voronoi stippling. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on non-photorealistic animation and rendering, pp 37–43Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Smith K, Liu Y, Klein A (2005) Animosaics. In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics symposium on computer animation, pp 201–208Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sousa MC, Buchanan JW (2000) Observational models of graphite pencil materials. In: Computer graphics forum, vol 19, pp 27–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sousa MC, Prusinkiewicz P (2003) A few good lines: suggestive drawing of 3d models. In: Computer graphics forum, vol 22, pp 381–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tomasi C, Manduchi R (1998) Bilateral filtering for gray and color images. In: Sixth International conference on computer vision, 1998, pp 839–846Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wallraven C, Fleming R, Cunningham D, Rigau J, Feixas M, Sbert M (2009) Categorizing art: comparing humans and computers. Comput Graph 33 (4):484–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wang J, Xu Y, Shum HY, Cohen MF (2004) Video tooning. ACM Trans Graph 23(3):574–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wen F, Luan Q, Liang L, Xu YQ, Shum HY (2006) Color sketch generation. In: Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on non-photorealistic animation and rendering, pp 47–54Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Winnemöller H, Olsen SC, Gooch B (2006) Real-time video abstraction. ACM Trans Graph 25:1221–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kangnam UniversityYongin-siSouth Korea
  2. 2.Hallym UniversityChuncheonSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations