An improved robust image watermarking by using different embedding strengths

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Image watermarking technique is an alternative solution to protecting digital image copyright. This paper proposed a new embedding technique based on different embedding strengths for embedding a watermark. An image is divided into non-overlapping blocks of 8 × 8 pixels. The variance pixel value was computed for each image block. Image blocks with the highest variance value were selected for the embedding regions. Therefore, it was transformed by discrete cosine transforms (DCT). Five DCT coefficients in the middle frequency were selected and the average of selected DCT blocks was calculated to generate different embedding strengths by using a set of rules. The watermark bits were embedded by using a set of embedding rules with the proposed different embedding strengths. For an additional security, the binary watermark was scrambled by using an Arnold Transform before it was embedded. The experimental results showed that the proposed scheme achieved a higher imperceptibility than the other existing schemes. The proposed scheme achieved a watermarked image quality with a PSNR value of 46 dB. The proposed scheme also produced a high watermark extracting resistance under various attacks.

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This work was supported by Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) No. RDU190117 from Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia.

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Correspondence to Ferda Ernawan.

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Ariatmanto, D., Ernawan, F. An improved robust image watermarking by using different embedding strengths. Multimed Tools Appl (2020) doi:10.1007/s11042-019-08338-x

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  • Different embedding strengths
  • Adaptive scaling factor
  • Embedding scheme
  • Extracting scheme
  • Image watermarking
  • Discrete cosine transforms