Enhancing fragility of zero-based text watermarking utilizing effective characters list

  • Tanzila Saba
  • Morteza Bashardoost
  • Hoshang Kolivand
  • Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim
  • Amjad RehmanEmail author
  • Muhammad Attique Khan


Text is an important medium used for sharing information worldwide. For a text document, digital watermarking is an efficient way for copyright protection, authentication, tamper proofing, to name but a few. In this paper, a zero-based watermarking approach is proposed for document authentication and tamper detection. To enhance the fragility of watermark, the proposed text watermarking approach can be comfortably utilized – based on the Effective Characters List (ECL) for watermark generation. The ECL method is generated for English text zero-watermarking by maintaining the contents of the original document and constructing the watermark by formulating the smooth transition between the selected characters in the documents. The evaluation of the proposed watermarking approach is based on three famous watermarking attacks including deletion, insertion, and reordering with an accuracy of 80.76%, 80.36%, and 88.1%, respectively. For a fair evaluation, a comparison is put forth with a recent zero-based watermarking method - clearly showing that the proposed method outperforms existing with greater accuracy.


Watermarking Authentication Tamper detection Zero-based watermarking Fragility Effective characters list 



“This work is the output of the collaboration of Department of Computer Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK , University Industry Research Laboratory (UIRL), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia UTM, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia This work was also collaborated, supported by Artificial Intelligence and Data Analytics (AIDA) Lab Prince Sultan University Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Authors are thankful for the support”.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Computer and Information SciencesPrince Sultan UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Media Centre, Institute of Human CentredUniversity Industry Research Laboratory (UIRL), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia UTMSkudaiMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Computer ScienceLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK
  4. 4.College of Computer and Information SciencesImam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringHITEC UniversityTaxilaPakistan

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