A novel hash function based fragile watermarking method for image integrity

  • Ertugrul GulEmail author
  • Serkan Ozturk


In recent years, tampering and altering of digital images have become easier with the rapid development of computer technologies such as digital image editing tools. Therefore, verification of image integrity and tamper detection of digital images have become a great challenge. Fragile watermarking is the most widely used method for protecting the integrity and content authenticity of the image. In this paper, by using SHA-256 hash function, a novel block based fragile watermark embedding and tamper detection method is proposed. In watermark embedding phase, host image is divided into 32 × 32 non-overlapped blocks. Each 32 × 32 block is then divided into four 16 × 16 nonoverlapped sub-blocks. The entire hash value of the first three sub-blocks is generated as a watermark using SHA-256 hash function. The generated 256-bit binary watermark is embedded into the least significant bits (LSBs) of the fourth sub-block and watermarked image is obtained. In tamper detection phase, the detection of tampered block has been performed by comparing the hash value obtained from the three sub-blocks with the extracted watermark from the fourth sub-block of the watermarked image. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated by applying linear and nonlinear attacks to the different regions of the watermarked images. Experimental results show that the proposed method detects all the tampered regions of the attacked images and high visual quality of watermarked images has been obtained.


Fragile image watermarking SHA-256 Image integrity 



  1. 1.
    Ali M, Ahn CW, Pant M (2018) An efficient lossless robust watermarking scheme by integrating redistributed invariant wavelet and fractional fourier transforms. Multimed Tools Appl 77(10):11751–11773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ali SA, Jawad MJ, Naser MA (2017) A semi-fragile watermarking based image authentication. J Eng Appl Sci 12(6):1582–1589Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aparna P, Kishore PVV (2018) An efficient medical image watermarking technique in e-healthcare application using hybridization of compression and cryptography algorithm. J Intell Syst 27(1):115–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aslantas V, Ozer S, Ozturk S (2007) A novel clonal selection algorithm based fragile watermarking method. In: Artificial Immune Systems, Springer, pp 358–369Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aslantas V, Dogan AL, Ozturk S (2008) DWT-SVD based image watermarking using particle swarm optimizer. In: Multimedia and Expo, 2008 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, pp 241–244Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aslantas V, Ozer S, Ozturk S (2008) A novel fragile watermarking based on particle swarm optimization. In: Multimedia and Expo, 2008 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, pp 269–272Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aslantas V, Ozer S, Ozturk S (2009) Improving the performance of DCT-based fragile watermarking using intelligent optimization algorithms. Opt Commun 282(14):2806–2817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bravo-Solorio S, Nandi AK (2011) Secure fragile watermarking method for image authentication with improved tampering localisation and self-recovery capabilities. Signal Process 91(4):728–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Christlein V, Riess C, Jordan J, Riess C, Angelopoulou E (2012) An evaluation of popular copy-move forgery detection approaches. arXiv preprint arXiv:12083665Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Das S, Kundu MK (2013) Effective management of medical information through ROI-lossless fragile image watermarking technique. Comput Methods Prog Biomed 111(3):662–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fatema M, Maheshkar V, Maheshkar S, Agarwal G (2018) Tamper detection using fragile image watermarking based on chaotic system. In: International Conference on Wireless Intelligent and Distributed Environment for Communication, Springer, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ghosal S, Mandal J (2014) Binomial transform based fragile watermarking for image authentication. J Inf Secur Appl 19(4):272–281Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hong W, Chen M, Chen TS (2017) An efficient reversible image authentication method using improved PVO and LSB substitution techniques. Signal Process Image Commun 58:111–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hsu CS, Tu SF (2010) Probability-based tampering detection scheme for digital images. Opt Commun 283(9):1737–1743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hu YC, Lo CC, Chen WL (2016) Probability-based reversible image authentication scheme for image demosaicking. Futur Gener Comput Syst 62:92–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khor HL, Liew SC, Zain JM (2017) Region of interest-based tamper detection and lossless recovery watermarking scheme (ROI-DR) on ultrasound medical images. J Digit Imaging 30(3):328–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kumar C, Singh AK, Kumar P (2018) A recent survey on image watermarking techniques and its application in e-governance. Multimed Tools Appl 77(3):3597–3622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kunhu A, Al-Ahmad H (2013) A new watermarking algorithm for color satellite images using color logos and hash functions. In: 2013 Fifth International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Communication Systems and Networks, pp 251–255Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kunhu A, Al-Ahmad H, Mansoori SA (2017) A reversible watermarking scheme for ownership protection and authentication of medical images. In: 2017 International Conference on Electrical and Computing Technologies and Applications (ICECTA), pp 1–4Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee SJ, Jung SH (2001) A survey of watermarking techniques applied to multimedia. In: Industrial Electronics, 2001. Proceedings. ISIE 2001. IEEE International Symposium on, IEEE, vol 1, pp 272–277Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li C, Wang Y, Ma B, Zhang Z (2013) Multi-block dependency based fragile watermarking scheme for fingerprint images protection. Multimed Tools Appl 64(3):757–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li C, Zhang A, Liu Z, Liao L, Huang D (2015) Semi-fragile self-recoverable watermarking algorithm based on wavelet group quantization and double authentication. Multimed Tools Appl 74(23):10581–10604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li CT, Si H (2007) Wavelet-based fragile watermarking scheme for image authentication. J Electron Imaging 16(1):013009MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li ZH, Hou JJ (2006) DCT-domain fragile watermarking algorithm based on logistic maps. Acta Electron Sin 34(12):2134Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Loukhaoukha K, Chouinard JY, Taieb MH (2011) Optimal image watermarking algorithm based on LWT-SVD via multi-objective ant colony optimization. J Inf Hiding Multimed Signal Process 2(4):303–319Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lu CS, Liao HYM (2003) Structural digital signature for image authentication: an incidental distortion resistant scheme. IEEE Trans Multimed 5(2):161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    MeenakshiDevi P, Venkatesan M, Duraiswamy K (2009) A fragile watermarking scheme for image authentication with tamper localization using integer wavelet transform. J Comput Sci 5(11):831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Navas K, Sasikumar M, Sreevidya S (2007) A benchmark for medical image watermarking. In: Systems, Signals and Image Processing, 2007 and 6th EURASIP Conference focused on Speech and Image Processing, Multimedia Communications and Services. 14th International Workshop on, IEEE, pp 237–240Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nazari M, Sharif A, Mollaeefar M (2017) An improved method for digital image fragile watermarking based on chaotic maps. Multimed Tools Appl 76(15):16107–16123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nguyen TS, Chang CC, Yang XQ (2016) A reversible image authentication scheme based on fragile watermarking in discrete wavelet transform domain. AEU - Int J Electron Commun 70(8):1055–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ni Z, Shi YQ, Ansari N, Su W (2006) Reversible data hiding. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 16(3):354–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pandey R, Singh AK, Kumar B, Mohan A (2016) Iris based secure NROI multiple eye image watermarking for teleophthalmology. Multimed Tools Appl 75(22):14381–14397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Parekh M, Bidani S, Santhi V (2018) Spatial domain blind watermarking for digital images. In: Progress in Computing, Analytics and Networking, Springer, pp 519–527Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Patel HA, Divecha NH (2018) A feature-based semi-fragile watermarking algorithm for digital color image authentication using hybrid transform. In: Advances in Computer and Computational Sciences, Springer, pp 455–465Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Peng Yin HHY (2001) Classification of video tampering methods and countermeasures using digital watermarkingGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Publications (FIPS) FIPS (October 2008) Secure hash standard (shs). Standard, National Institute of Standards and Technology, FIPS PUB 180-3, Gaithersburg, MD 20899–8900Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Qin C, Chang CC, Chen PY (2012) Self-embedding fragile watermarking with restoration capability based on adaptive bit allocation mechanism. Signal Process 92(4):1137–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Qin C, Wang H, Zhang X, Sun X (2016) Self-embedding fragile watermarking based on reference-data interleaving and adaptive selection of embedding mode. Inf Sci 373:233–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Qin C, Ji P, Wang J, Chang CC (2017) Fragile image watermarking scheme based on VQ index sharing and self-embedding. Multimed Tools Appl 76(2):2267–2287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Qin C, Ji P, Zhang X, Dong J, Wang J (2017) Fragile image watermarking with pixel-wise recovery based on overlapping embedding strategy. Signal Process 138:280–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Singh AK, Dave M, Mohan A (2014) Wavelet based image watermarking: futuristic concepts in information security. Proc Natl Acad Sci India Sect A Phys Sci 84(3):345–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Singh AK, Kumar B, Singh G, Mohan A (2017) Robust and secure multiple watermarking technique for application in tele-ophthalmology. In: Medical Image Watermarking, Springer, pp 159–173Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Singh D, Singh SK (2017) DCT based efficient fragile watermarking scheme for image authentication and restoration. Multimed Tools Appl 76(1):953–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Singh P, Agarwal S (2017) A self recoverable dual watermarking scheme for copyright protection and integrity verification. Multimed Tools Appl 76(5):6389–6428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Singh P, Chadha R (2013) A survey of digital watermarking techniques, applications and attacks. Int J Eng Innov Technol (IJEIT) 2(9):165–175Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Singh RK, Shaw DK, Alam MJ (2015) Experimental studies of LSB watermarking with different noise. Procedia Comput Sci 54:612–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sreenivas K, Kamkshi Prasad V (2017) Fragile watermarking schemes for image authentication: a survey. Int J Mach Learn CybernGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Su Q, Chen B (2018) Robust color image watermarking technique in the spatial domain. Soft Comput 22(1):91–106MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Su Q, Wang G, Lv G, Zhang X, Deng G, Chen B (2017) A novel blind color image watermarking based on contourlet transform and hessenberg decomposition. Multimed Tools Appl 76(6):8781–8801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Trivedy S, Pal AK (2017) A logistic map-based fragile watermarking scheme of digital images with tamper detection. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Electr Eng 41(2):103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tsai P, Hu YC, Chang CC (2005) Novel image authentication scheme based on quadtree segmentation. Imaging Sci J 53(3):149–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ustubioglu A, Ulutas G (2017) A new medical image watermarking technique with finer tamper localization. J Digit Imaging 30(6):665–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vasu S, George SN, Deepthi PP (2012) An integrity verification system for images using hashing and watermarking. In: 2012 International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies, pp 85–89Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Verma VS, Jha RK, Ojha A (2015) Significant region based robust watermarking scheme in lifting wavelet transform domain. Expert Syst Appl 42(21):8184–8197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wahid M, Ahmad N, Zafar MH, Khan S (2018) On combining MD5 for image authentication using LSB substitution in selected pixels. In: Engineering and Emerging Technologies (ICEET), 2018 International Conference on, IEEE, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wang X, Peng Y, Lu L, Lu Z, Bagheri M, Summers RM (2017) Chestx-ray8: Hospital-scale chest x-ray database and benchmarks on weakly-supervised classification and localization of common thorax diseases. In: Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2017 IEEE Conference on, IEEE, pp 3462–3471Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Weber AG (1997) The USC-SIPI image database version 5. USC-SIPI Rep 315:1–24Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yu M, Wang J, Jiang G, Peng Z, Shao F, Luo T (2015) New fragile watermarking method for stereo image authentication with localization and recovery. AEU - Int J Electron Commun 69(1):361–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Zhang H, Wang C, Zhou X (2017) Fragile watermarking based on LBP for blind tamper detection in images. JIPS (J Inf Process Syst) 13(2):385–399Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Zhang X, Wang S (2009) Fragile watermarking scheme using a hierarchical mechanism. Signal Process 89(4):675–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zhang X, Xiao Y, Zhao Z (2015) Self-embedding fragile watermarking based on DCT and fast fractal coding. Multimed Tools Appl 74(15):5767–5786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zheng PP, Feng J, Li Z, Zhou MQ (2014) A novel SVD and LS-SVM combination algorithm for blind watermarking. Neurocomputing 142:520–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Computer Engineering DepartmentNigde Omer Halisdemir UniversityNigdeTurkey
  2. 2.Computer Engineering DepartmentErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey

Personalised recommendations