A robust H.264/AVC video watermarking algorithm without intra distortion drift is proposed in this paper for the copyright protection of digital videos. The classic scheme prevented distortion from drifting by the classification of intra prediction modes, and different categories have different methods for modifying coefficient-pairs. Based on the reference pixels when 4 × 4 blocks of videos are encoded, the improved scheme proposed in this paper introduces a reclassification of intra prediction modes into avoiding distortion drift, which efficient enlarges the capacity of this kind of methods. Besides, the chosen principle of coefficient-pairs for watermarking is presented by theoretical and experimental analysis. By the means above, watermarked videos have controlled bit rate growth and guaranteed visual quality even if the capacity is enlarged. Then, pre-processing of watermarks reasonable reduce the bits needed to embed, which fixes the problem in classic scheme about limited capacity limits the size of watermarks. Meanwhile, spread-spectrum and Hamming code employed together not only promote robustness but also reduce computational complexity. Experimental results show that compared with the classic robust distortion drift-free methods, our algorithm maintains good visual performance with the enlarged capacity, and the strong robustness is kept without a huge increasement of bit rate.
Digital watermarking Distortion drift Robustness H.264/AVC
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under the grant No. U1536110.
Chang PC, Chung KL, Chen JJ, Lin CH, Lin TJ (2014) A DCT/DST-based error propagation-free data hiding algorithm for HEVC intra-coded frames. J Vis Commun Image Represent 25(2):239–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fridrich J, Soukal D (2006) Matrix embedding for large payloads. IEEE Trans on Information Forensics and Security 1(3):390–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaj S, Kanetkar A, Sur A, Bora PK (2017) Drift-Compensated Robust Watermarking Algorithm for H.265/HEVC Video Stream. ACM Trans Multimed Comput Commun Appl 13(1):1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartung F, Girod B (1998) Watermarking of uncompressed and compressed video. Signal Process 66(3):283–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huo W, Zhu Y, Chen H (2011) A controllable error-drift elimination scheme for watermarking algorithm in H.264/AVC stream. IEEE Signal Processing Letters 18(9):535–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ITU-T Recommendation (2012) Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services, ISO/IECGoogle Scholar
Lin TJ, Chung KL, Chang PC, Huang YH (2013) An improved DCT-based perturbation scheme for high capacity data hiding in H.264/AVC intra frames. The Journal of System and Software 86(3):604–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu YX, Ju L, Hu M, Ma XJ, Z H (2015) A robust reversible data hiding scheme for H.264 without distortion drift. Neurocomputing 151(1):1053–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu YX, Li ZT, Ma XJ, L J (2013) A robust data hiding algorithm for H.264/AVC video streams. J Syst Softw 86(8):2174–2183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ma XJ, Li ZT, Tu H, Zhang BC (2010) A data hiding algorithm for H.264/AVC video streams without intra frame distortion drift. IEEE Trans Circuits System Video Technology 20(10):1320–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noorkami M, Mersereau RM (2007) A framework for robust watermarking of H.264 encoded video with controllable detection performance. IEEE Trans Information Forensics Security 2(1):14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qiu G, Marziliano P, Ho ATS, He D, Sun Q (2004) A hybrid watermarking scheme for H.264/AVC video. Proc IEEE International Conference on Pattern Recognition 4:865–868Google Scholar
Wiegand T, Sullivan GJ, Bjontegaard G, Luthra A (2003) Overview of the H.264/AVC video coding standard, IEEE Trans. Circuits System Video Technology. 13(7):560–576Google Scholar
Yao YZ, Zhang WM, Yu NH (2016) Inter-frame distortion drift analysis for reversible data hiding in encrypted H.264/AVC video bitstreams. Signal Process 128(C):531–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yiqi T, KokSheik W (2014) An Overview of information hiding in H.264/AVC compressed video. IEEE Trans Circuits System Video Technology 24(2):305–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang J, Ho ATS, Qiu G (2007) Robust video watermarking of H.264/AVC. IEEE Trans Circuits System II: Express Briefs 54(2):205–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang WW, Li X, Zhang YZ, Zhang R, Zheng LX (2017) Robust video watermarking algorithm for H.264/AVC based on JND model. KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems 11(5):2741–2761Google Scholar
Zhang XP, Wang SZ (2006) Efficient steganographic embedding by exploiting modification direction. IEEE Commun Lett 10(11):781–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar