Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 78, Issue 5, pp 5445–5462 | Cite as

Uses of social network topology and network-integrated multimedia for designing a large-scale open learning system: case studies of unsupervised featured learning platform Design in South Korea

  • Yoonil AuhEmail author
  • Heejung Raina Sim


This paper discusses the uses of network-integrated multimedia and social network modeling to design a large-scale open learning system (OLS) for unsupervised learning. Multimedia uses for enriching learning experiences have greatly improved within the last decade due to advances in broadband technology and high-speed transmission. The multimedia integrated learning environment is no longer limited to embedding low-quality video and audio streaming but can provide multivariant information delivery to enhance the self-directed learning experience. This paper discusses two case studies of an open learning system developed in South Korea that used social learning network models and multimedia: the NOOC Project for civic education, and the Genesis Project for professional and continuing education. While the focus of study is on uses of social network topology modeling and network-integrated multimedia to design an open learning system, the underlying design has broad implications for modeling any gradient-based, unsupervised open learning system for continuing education and informal learning.


Network-integrated multimedia Hyper-connected learning Distributed learning Open learning system MOOC ICT 



  1. 1.
    Aguirre RTP, Bolton KW (2013) Qualitative interpretive meta-synthesis in social work research: uncharted territory. J Soc Work 14(3):279–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alias NA (2013) ICT Development for Social and Rural Connectedness. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alsagoff ZA (2015) Nano Open Online Courses (NOOCs)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Amato F, Moscato V, Picariello A, Sperlí G (2016) Multimedia social network modeling: a proposal. 2016 IEEE Tenth International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC), Laguna Hills, pp 448–453Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Azam F (2000) Biologically Inspired Modular Neural Networks. PhD Dissertation, Virginia TechGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barabási AL (2009) Scale-Free Networks: A Decade and Beyond. ScienceGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barabási AL, Bonabeau E (2003) Scale-free networks. Sci Am 288(5):50–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barabasi AL, Frangos J (2014) Linked: the new science of networks science of networks. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bar-Yam Y (2011) Concepts: Power Law. New England Complex Systems InstituteGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bradford WC (2004) Reaching the visual learner: teaching property through art. Law Teacher 11Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cadima R, Ojeda J, Monguet JM (2012) Social networks and performance in distributed learning communities. Educ Technol Soc 15(4):296–304Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Couros A (2010) Developing personal learning networks for open and social learning.Emerging Technologies in Distance Education 109–128Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D’Antoni S (2009) Open educational resources: reviewing initiatives and issues, open learning: the journal of open. Dis e-Learning 24(1):3–10Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Downes S (2012) Connectivism and Connective Knowledge: Essays on meaning and learning networks. Version 1.0. National Research Council Canada.
  15. 15.
    Ferrara E, Fiumara G (2011) Topological features of online social networks. Commun Appl Ind Math 2(2):1–20MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fox A (2013) From MOOCs to SPOCs. Commun ACM 56(12):38–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Happel B, Murre J (1994) The design and evolution of modular neural network architectures. Neural Netw 7:985–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jones C, Steeples C (2002) Perspectives and issues in networked learning. In: Steeples C, Jones C (eds) Networked learning: perspectives and issues. Springer-Verlag, London, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kanellopoulos D (2013) Intelligent Multimedia Technologies for Networking Applications: Techniques and Tools. IGI GlobalGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    De Laat MF, Simons PRJ. Collective learning: theoretical perspectives and ways to support networked learning. Vocation Training: Eur J 2002; 27, 13–24Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Leskovec J, Kleinberg J, Faloutsos C (2005) Graphs over time: Densication laws, shrinking diameters and possible explanations, in Proceedings of the eleventh ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery in data mining, ACM 177–187Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Leskovec J, Lang K, Dasgupta A, Mahoney M (2008) Statistical properties of community structure in large social and information networks, in 17th international conference on World Wide Web 695–704Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Luo J, Magee C (2011) Detecting evolving patterns of self-organizing networks by flow hierarchy measurement 16 (6): 53–61Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lynch C, Ashley KD, Pinkwart N, Aleven V (2009) Concepts, Structures, and Goals: Redefining Ill-Definedness. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, IOS Press. 19, 253–266 253Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mackey TP, Jacobson TE (2014) Metaliteracy: Reinventing Information Literacy to Empower Learners. ALA Neal-SchumanGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maisonneuve N (2007) Managing social interaction overload: new emerging strategies. [Web blog post] Retrieved from
  27. 27.
    Newman MEJ (2006) Modularity and community structure in networks. Proc Ntnl Acad Sci 103(23):8577–8582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    O’Donnell AM, King A (eds) (1999) Cognitive perspectives on peer learning. Erlbaum, MahwahGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    OECD (2007) Giving Knowledge for Free: The Emergence Of Open Educational Resources. Centre for Educational Research And InnovationGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    OECD. Equity and Quality in Education (2012) Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools, OECD PublishingGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Paterson BL, Thorne SE, Canam C, Jillings C (2001) Meta-study of qualitative health research: a practical guide to meta-analysis and meta-synthesis. Sage, Thousand OaksCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Powell TE, Boomgaarden HG (2015) De Swert K, de Vreese CH. A Clear Picture: Contrib Vis Text Framing Effects 65:997–1017Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ravasz E, Barabási AL (2003) Hierarchical organization in complex networks. Physical Review; E 67Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Review of MOOC Stats and Trends in 2017 (2018)
  35. 35.
    Reyes G (2016) Can Centralized and Decentralized Online Training Co-Exist? MindflashGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sang J, Xu C (2012) Social influence analysis and application on multimedia sharing websites. ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMM) (9) No. 53Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Siemens G (2008) What is the unique idea in ConnectivismGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Travers J, Milgram S (1969) An experimental study of the small world problem. Sociometry 32(4):425–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    UNESCO (2005) Knowledge societies: The way forward to build a better worldGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) (2009) Creating an Inclusive Society: Practical Strategies to Promote Social IntegrationGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Utsumi N (2005) In Handbook of Research on E-Government Readiness for Information and Service Exchange: Utilizing Progressive Information Communication Technologies: Utilizing Progressive Information Communication Technologies Rahman, Hakikur (Ed) IGI Global, Jul 31, 2009Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vaughan T (2011) Multimedia: making it works, 8th edn. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wang T (2010) Educational Benefits of Multimedia Skills Training. Techtrends Tech Trends 54. Springer USGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Watts DJ, Strogatz SH (1998) Collective dynamics of ‘small-world’ networks. Nature 393(6684):440–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zachary W (1977) An information flow model for conflict and fission in small groups. J Anthropol Res 33:452–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Information & Communications EngineeringKyung Hee Cyber UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Asia Development Institute, Graduate School of Public AdministrationSeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations