Scaling factor estimation on JPEG compressed images by cyclostationarity analysis

  • Xianjin Liu
  • Wei Lu
  • Tao Huang
  • Hongmei Liu
  • Yingjie Xue
  • Yuileong Yeung


Scaling factor estimation is one of the most important topics in image forensics. The existing methods mainly employ the peak of the Fourier spectrum of the variance on image difference to detect the scaling factor. However, when the image is compressed, there will be additional stronger peaks which greatly affect the detection ability. In this paper, a novel method to estimate the scaling factor on JPEG compressed images in the presence of image scaling before the compression is proposed. We find the squared image difference can more effectively obtain the resampling characteristics, and we will mathematically show its periodicity. To further improve the detection ability, we analyze the flat block. It also produces periodic peaks in the spectrum, meanwhile which are enhanced by JPEG compression. To solve this problem, a method based on interpolation on the flat block is developed to remove these influences. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed detection method outperforms some state-of-the-art methods.


Image forensics Image resampling detection Scaling factor estimation 



This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. U1736118), the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFB0802500), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong (No. 2016A030313350), the Special Funds for Science and Technology Development of Guangdong (No. 2016KZ010103), the Key Project of Scientific Research Plan of Guangzhou (No. 201804020068), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 16lgjc83 and No. 17lgjc45).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Data and Computer Science, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Information Security TechnologySun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Information Security Institute of Information EngineeringChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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