Advertisement

Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 78, Issue 2, pp 2621–2638 | Cite as

A zero-bit Fourier image watermarking for print-cam process

  • Khadija GourrameEmail author
  • Hassan Douzi
  • Rachid Harba
  • Rabia Riad
  • Frederic Ros
  • Meina Amar
  • Mohamed Elhajji
Article
  • 80 Downloads

Abstract

Smartphone watermarking has many potential applications but also many challenging issues such as being able to withstand print-cam attacks. These include perspective deformations that can strongly deform the freehandedly digitized image. In this paper, we present the design of an image watermarking for print-cam process in the context of an industrial security application for identity images. The method uses watermarking based on the Fourier transform and a specific correction pre-process. These corrections combine frame-based perspective rectification of the freehandedly captured images, a Wiener filter to decrease image blurring and adjustments to reduce color degradations. Results show that the Fourier watermarking method gives better results than state of the art of existing watermarking methods often chosen to cope with print-cam attacks. Fourier watermarking provides a total error rate of 1%, which is compatible with the targeted industrial application. The error of the other methods is at best 25%. Finally, no noticeable difference was found between the two smartphones tested (iPhone 6 and Samsung S5), in terms of error rate, for the proposed method.

Keywords

Image watermarking Print-cam Perspective deformation Fourier domain Smartphones 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by project PPR2-CNRST: Prototype Development for authentication systems based on face biometrics.

References

  1. 1.
    Al-Otum H, Al-Shalabi NE (2017) Copyright protection of color images for android-based smartphones using watermarking with quick-response code. Multimed Tools Appl.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-017-5138-3
  2. 2.
    Cheddad A, Condell J, Curran K, Mc Kevitt P (2010) Digital image steganography: survey and analysis of current methods. Signal Process 90(3):727–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cheung V, Westland S, Connah D, Ripamonti C (2004) A comparative study of the characterisation of colour cameras by means of neural networks and polynomial transforms. Color Technol 120(1):19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cox I, Miller M, Bloom J, Fridrich J, Kalker T (2007) Digital watermarking and steganography. Morgan Kaufmann, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hancock P (2008) Psychological image collection at stirling (pics). Web address: http://pics.psych.stir.ac.uk. Accessed September 2017
  6. 6.
    Delgado-Guillen LA, Garcia-Hernandez JJ, Torres-Huitzil C (2013) Digital watermarking of color images utilizing mobile platforms. In: 2013 IEEE 56th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). IEEE, Columbus, pp 1363–1366Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gourrame K, Douzi H, Harba R, Ros F, El Hajji M, Riad R, Amar M (2016) "Robust Print-cam Image Watermarking in Fourier Domain." International Conference on Image and Signal Processing. Springer, Cham, pp 356–365Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grossberg MD, Nayar SK (2004) Modeling the space of camera response functions. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26(10):1272–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hartley R, Zisserman A (2003) Multiple view geometry in computer vision. Cambridge university press, CambridgezbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horiuchi T, Wada M, Saito R, Tominaga S (2009) Improvement on information capacity of watermarked images by using multi-valued area of embedded signals. In: Proceedings: APSIPA ASC 2009: Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association, 2009 Annual Summit and Conference. Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association, 2009 Annual Summit and Conference, International Organizing Committee, Sapporo, Japan, pp 765–768Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Katayama A, Nakamura T, Yamamuro M, Sonehara N (2004) New high-speed frame detection method: Side Trace Algorithm (STA) for i-appli on cellular phones to detect watermarks. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia. ACM, New York, pp 109–116Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Keskinarkaus A, Pramila A, Seppänen T, Sauvola J (2006) "Wavelet domain print-scan and JPEG resilient data hiding method." International Workshop on Digital Watermarking, pp. 82-95. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim W-g, Lee SH, Seo Y-s (2006) "Image fingerprinting scheme for print-and-capture model." Pacific-Rim Conference on Multimedia. Springer, Berlin, pp 106–113Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Le N-T (2017) Invisible watermarking optical camera communication and compatibility issues of IEEE 802.15. 7r1 specification. Opt Commun 390:144–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lin C-Y, Wu M, Bloom JA, Cox IJ, Miller ML, Lui YM (2001) Rotation, scale, and translation resilient watermarking for images. IEEE Trans Image Process 10(5):767–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu JC, Shieh HA (2011) Toward a two-dimensional barcode with visual information using perceptual shaping watermarking in mobile applications. Opt Eng 50(1):017002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mateos J, López A, Vega M, Molina R, Katsaggelos AK (2016) Multiframe blind deconvolution of passive millimeter wave images using variational dirichlet blur kernel estimation. In: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). IEEE, Phoenix, pp 2678–2682Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Miller ML, Bloom JA (1999) Computing the probability of false watermark detection. In: International Workshop on Information Hiding. Springer, Berlin, pp 146–158Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nakamura T, Katayama A, Yamamuro M, Sonehara N (2004) Fast watermark detection scheme for camera-equipped cellular phone. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia. ACM, New York, pp 101–108Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nguyen P-B, Beghdadi A, Luong M (2009). Robust watermarking in DOG scale space using a multi-scale JND model. Pacific-Rim Conference on Multimedia, pp. 561-573. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ouyang J, Coatrieux G, Chen B, Shu H (2015) Color image watermarking based on quaternion Fourier transform and improved uniform log-polar mapping. Comput Electr Eng 46:419–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pereira S, Pun T (2000) Robust template matching for affine resistant image watermarks. IEEE Trans Image Process 9(6):1123–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Poljicak A, Mandic L, Agic D (2011) Discrete Fourier transform-based watermarking method with an optimal implementation radius. J Electron Imaging 20(3):033008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pramila A, Keskinarkaus A, Seppänen T (2007) Camera based watermark extraction-problems and examples. In: Proceedings of the Finnish Signal Processing Symposium, Oulu, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pramila A, Keskinarkaus A, Seppänen T (2008) Watermark robustness in the print-cam process. In: Proc. IASTED Signal processing, pattern recognition, and applications (SPPRA 2008), Innsbruck, Austria, pp 60–65Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pramila A, Keskinarkaus A, Seppänen T (2012) Toward an interactive poster using digital watermarking and a mobile phone camera. SIViP 6(2):211–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pramila A, Keskinarkaus A, Takala V, Seppänen T (2017) Extracting watermarks from printouts captured with wide angles using computational photography. Multimedia Tools and Applications 76(15):16063–16084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Riad R, Ros F, Harba R, Douzi H, El Hajji M (2014) Pre-processing the cover image before embedding improves the watermark detection rate. In: 2014 Second World Conference on Complex Systems (WCCS). IEEE, Agadir, pp 705-709Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Riad R, Harba R, Douzi H, Ros F, Elhajji M (2016) Robust fourier watermarking for id images on smart card plastic supports. Advances In Electrical and Computer Engineering 16(4):23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Takeshita S, Maehara T, Ono S (2017) Digital watermark design for two-dimensional codes displayed on smart phone screen using multi-objective optimization and optical simulation. In: International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing. Springer, Cham, pp 201–214Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Takeuchi S, Kunisa A, Tsujita K, Inoue Y (2005) Geometric distortion compensation of printed images containing imperceptible watermarks. In:  2005 Digest of Technical Papers. International Conference on Consumer Electronics, 2005. ICCE. IEEE, Las Vegas, pp 411–412Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thongkor K, Amornraksa T (2012) Digital image watermarking for photo authentication in Thai national ID card. In: 2012 9th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology. IEEE, Phetchaburi, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thongkor K, Amornraksa T (2014) Robust image watermarking for camera-captured image using image registration technique. In: 2014 14th International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies (ISCIT). IEEE, Incheon, pp 479–483Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wu D, Zhou X, Niu X (2009) A novel image hash algorithm resistant to print–scan. Signal Process 89(12):2415–2424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yan Q, Blum RS (2001) Distributed signal detection under the Neyman-Pearson criterion. IEEE Trans Inf Theory 47(4):1368–1377MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yeung MM, Mintzer FC (1998) Invisible watermarking for image verification. Journal of Electronic imaging 7(3):578–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IRF-SIC LaboratoryIbn Zohr UniversityAgadirMorocco
  2. 2.PRISME LaboratoryOrléans UniversityOrléansFrance

Personalised recommendations