Advertisement

Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 77, Issue 23, pp 30419–30435 | Cite as

Simple and robust watermarking scheme based on square-root-modulus technique

  • Chun-Yuan Hsiao
  • Ming-Feng Tsai
  • Ching-Yu Yang
Article
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

In this paper, we present a simple and robust watermarking scheme for color images. The scheme is based on the square-root-modulus technique employed in the integer wavelet domain, which allows a large number of data bits to be embedded in a host image. Simulations confirmed that marked images generated by the proposed scheme are tolerant to various attacks such as blurring, brightness, contrast, cropping, edge sharpening, inversion, JPEG/JPEG2000 compressions, noise-additions, and truncation. Additionally, the payload of the proposed method is significantly larger than that of existing watermarking techniques and the resulting perceived quality is not bad. Because the code is quite simple, it is suitable for the proposed method implemented in the mobile equipments or smart devices.

Keywords

Data hiding Integer wavelet transform Color image watermarking Square-root-modulus 

References

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Calderbank AR, Daubechies I, Sweldens W, Yeo BL (1998) Wavelet transforms that map integers to integers. Appl Comput Harmon Anal 5:332–369MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cox IJ, Miller ML, Bloom JA, Fridrich J, Kalker T (2008) Digital watermarking and steganography, 2nd edn. Morgan Kaufmann, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eielinska E, Mazurczyk W, Szczypiorski K (2014) Trends in steganography. Commun ACM 57:86–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    FastStone Image Viewer. http://www.faststone.org/
  6. 6.
    Howard PG, Kossentini F, Martins B, Forchhammer S, Rucklidge WJ (1998) The emerging JBIG2 standard. IEEE Trans Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 8:838–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lin CC, Chang CC, Chen YH (2014) A novel SVD-based watermarking scheme for protecting rightful ownership of digital images. Journal of Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing 5:124–143Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pan JS, Li W, Yang CS, Yan L (2015) Image steganography based on subsampling and compressive sensing. Multimedia Tools and Applications 74:9191–9105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Parah SA, Sheikh JA, Loan NA, Bhat GM (2016) Robust and blind watermarking technique in DCT domain using inter-block coefficient differencing. Digital Signal Processing 53:11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Phadikar A (2012) Data hiding techniques and applications specific designs. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, SaarbruckenGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Qin C, Chang CC, Chen PY (2012) Self-Embedding fragile watermarking with restoration capability based on adaptive bit allocation mechanism. Signal Process 92:1137–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Qin C, Chang CC, Chen KN (2013) Adaptive self-recovery for tampered images based on VQ indexing and inpainting. Signal Process 93:933–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Qin C, Chang CC, Chen PY (2014) A novel joint data-hiding and compression scheme based on SMVQ and image painting. IEEE Trans Image Process 23:969–978MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Qin C, Chang CC, Hsu TJ (2015) Reversible data hiding scheme based on exploiting modification direction with two steganographic images. Multimedia Tools and Applications 74:5861–5872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Qin C, Chen X, Ye D, Wang J, Sun X (2016) A novel image hashing scheme with perceptual robustness using block truncation coding. Inf Sci 361-362:84–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Qin C, Ji P, Zhang X, Dong J, Wang J (2017) Fragile image watermarking with pixel-wise recovery based on overlapping embedding strategy. Signal Process 138:280–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Qin C, Chen X, Luo X, Zhang X, Sun X (2018) Perceptual image hashing via dual-cross pattern encoding and salient structure detection. Inf Sci 423:284–302MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang XY, Wang CP, Yang HY, Niu PP (2013) A robust blind color image watermarking in quaternion Fourier transform domain. J Syst Softw 86:255–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang XY, Liu YN, Han MM, Yang HY (2016) Local quaternion PHT based robust color image watermarking. J Vis Commun Image Represent 38:678–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang GP, Wang XY, Zhang CA, Xia ZQ (2017) Geometric correction based color image watermarking using fuzzy least squares support vector machine and Bessel K form distribution. Signal Process 134:197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yang CY (2013) Robust watermarking scheme based on radius weight mean and feature-embedding technique. ETRI J 35:512–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yang CY (2017) Robust high-capacity watermarking scheme based on Euclidean norms and quick coefficient alignment. Multimedia Tools and Applications 76:1455–1477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhang X (2013) Reversible data hiding with optimal value transfer. IEEE Trans Multimedia 15:316–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chun-Yuan Hsiao
    • 1
  • Ming-Feng Tsai
    • 1
  • Ching-Yu Yang
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Information EngineeringNational Kaoshiung University of Applied ScienceKaohsiungTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and Information EngineeringNational Penghu University of Science and TechnologyMagongTaiwan

Personalised recommendations