Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 77, Issue 20, pp 27589–27615 | Cite as

Blind speech watermarking using hybrid scheme based on DWT/DCT and sub-sampling

  • Ahmed Merrad
  • Slami SaadiEmail author


In this paper, a robust and blind speech watermarking technique is proposed using a combined scheme based on discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) Algorithms within signal sub-sampling. To achieve good imperceptibility, hybridization is implemented against many attacks such as: re-quantization, cropping, echo, amplification and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). We profit from the advantages of correlation between two successive samples so that we used signal sub-sampling. Obtained results, compared successfully to recent researches, show the robustness of our proposed approach.


Blind Speech watermarking DCT DWT Sub-sampling Attacks 


  1. 1.
    Al-Haj A (2013) A dual transform audio watermarking algorithm. Multimed Tools Appl. Springer Science+Business Media New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Antony J, Sobin C, Sherly AP (2012) Audio steganography in wavelet domain – a survey. International Journal of Computer Applications 52(13):975 . Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and TechnologyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brannock E, Weeks M, Harrison R (2008) Watermarking with wavelets simplicity leads to robustness. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cai Y-m (2013) An audio blind watermarking scheme based on DWT-SVD. J Softw 8(7). ACADEMY PUBLISHER
  5. 5.
    Debnath L (2002) Wavelet transform and their application. Birkhäuser, BostonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Deokar SM, Dhaigude B (2015) Blind audio watermarking based on discrete wavelet and cosine transform. International conference on industrial instrumentation and control (ICIC)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dhar PK 2014 A blind audio watermarking method based on lifting wavelet transform and QR decomposition. 8th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering 20–22 DecemberGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dhar PK, Tetsuya S (2017) Blind audion watermarking in transform domain based on singular value decomposition and exponential-log operations. Radioengineering 26(2). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Elshazly AR, Nasr ME, Fuad MM et al (2016) Synchronized double watermark audio watermarking scheme based on a transform domain for stereo signals. Electronics, Communications and Computers (JEC-ECC), 2016 Fourth International Japan-Egypt Conference on. IEEE, pp 52–57Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hemis M, Boudraa B, Merazi-Meksen T (2015) [21 pages]) New secure and robust audio watermarking algorithm based on QR factorization in wavelet domain. Int J Wavelets Multiresolution Inf Process 13:1550020. MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kaur A, Dutta MK, Soni KM, Taneja N (2017) Localized & self adaptive audio watermarking algorithm in the wavelet domain. Journal of Information Security and Applications 33:1–15. 2214-2126/©2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reservedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khan MI, Sarker IH, Hasan Furhad KD (2012) A new audio watermarking method based on discrete cosine transform with a gray image. Int J Comput Sci Inf Technol (IJCSIT) 4(4)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lin Y, Abdulla WH Audio watermark: a comprehensive foundation using MATLAB. Springer, Cham. ISBN 978-3-319-07974-5 (eBook)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mehta V, Sharma N (2015) Secure audio watermarking based on Haar wavelet and discrete cosine transform. International Journal of Computer Applications 123(11):30–36 Published by Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mishra J, Patil PMV (2013) An effective audio watermarking using dwt-svd. Department of Electronics, BVDUCOE, BVDUCOE, Pune J.S.Chitode, International Journal of Computer ApplicationsGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nair UR, Birajdar GK (2016) Audio watermarking in wavelet domain using Fibonacci numbers. Signal and Information Processing (IconSIP), International Conference on. IEEE, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nosrati M, Karimi R, Hariri M (2012) Audio steganography: a survey on recent approaches. World Applied Programming 2(3):202–205Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Osman MA, Ali NH (2012) Audio watermarking based on wavelet transform. Appl Mech Mater 229-231:2784–2788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pithiya PM, Desai HL (2013) DWT based digital image watermarking, de-watermarking & authentication. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development 7(5):104–109 e-ISSN: 2278-067X, p-ISSN: 2278-800X, Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tiwari A, Sharma M (2012) Comparative evaluation of semi fragile watermarking algorithms for image authentication. J Inf Secur 3(3):189–195. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Villanueva-Luna AE, Jaramillo-Nuñ ez A, Sanchez-Lucero D, Ortiz-Lima CM, Gabriel Aguilar-Soto J, Flores-Gil A, May-Alarcon M (2011) De-noising audio signals using MATLAB wavelets toolbox. In: Assi A(ed) Engineering education and research using MATLAB. InTech. ISBN: 978-953-307-656-0
  22. 22.
    Vivekananda Bhat K, Sengupta I, Das A (2011) An audio watermarking scheme using singular value decomposition and dither-modulation quantization. Multimed Tools Appl 52:369. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang J, He J (2016) A speech content authentication algorithm based on a novel watermarking method. Multimed Tools Appl. Springer Science+Business Media New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang X, Wang P, Zhang P, Yang H (2012) A blind audio watermarking algorithm by logarithmic quantization index modulation. Multimed Tools Appl. Springer Science+Business Media New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xiang S, Huang J (2007) Robust audio watermarking against the D/A and A/D conversions. CoRR abs/07070397Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yang H, Bao D, Wang X, Niu P (2012) A robust content based audio watermarking using UDWT and invariant histogram. Multimed Tools Appl 57:453–476. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhao H, Wang F, Chen Z, Liu J (2014) A robust audio watermarking algorithm based on SVD-DWT. Electr Electr Eng 20(1):75–80Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Automation and Applied Industrial Diagnostics (LAADI), Faculty of Exact Sciences & ComputersZiane Achour University of Djelfa (UZAD)DjelfaAlgeria

Personalised recommendations