SAE-based classification of school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders using functional magnetic resonance imaging
- 160 Downloads
This paper employs a novel-deep learning method and brain frequencies to discriminate school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from typically developing (TD) school-aged children with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 84 subjects from the ABIDE (Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange) database. Firstly, the fMRI data were preprocessed, and then each subject’s dataset was decomposed into 30 independent components (IC). Secondly, some key ICs were selected and inputted into a stacked autoencoder (SAE). The SAE was adopted for features subtraction and dimensionality reduction. Finally, a softmax classifier was used to discriminate the school-aged children with ASD from TD school-aged children. The average accuracy of the work was as high as 87.21% (average sensitivity = 92.86%, average specificity = 84.32%). The results of classification demonstrated that the proposed method may have the potential to automatically discriminate school-aged children with ASD from TD school-aged children. Attempts to use deep learning-based algorithms and brain frequencies to discriminate school-aged children with ASD from TD school-aged children should likely be a key step forward in auxiliary clinical utility.
KeywordsStacked autoencoder Classification School-aged children Autism spectrum disorder Brain frequency
This study was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant nos. 61662047). The authors would like to thank researchers and funding agencies that have contributed to ABIDE.
Compliance with ethical standards
Competing financial interests
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
- 22.Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S (1999) Autism diagnostic observation schedule. Los Angeles, Western Psychological ServiceGoogle Scholar
- 29.Association AP (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edn (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, pp 4189–4189Google Scholar
- 33.Autism and D. D. M. N. S. Y. P. Investigators (2014) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Surveillance Summaries 63(2):1–21Google Scholar
- 40.Wu Y, He F, Zhang D et al Service-oriented feature-based data exchange for cloud-based design and manufacturing. IEEE Trans Serv Comput. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSC.2015.2501981
- 43.Zhang YD, Hou XX, Lv YD et al (2017) Sparse autoencoder based deep neural network for Voxelwise detection of cerebral microbleed. IEEE, international conference on parallel and distributed systems. IEEE: 1229–32Google Scholar