Advertisement

Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 78, Issue 1, pp 783–797 | Cite as

Font generation based on least squares conditional generative adversarial nets

  • Xianming Lin
  • Jie Li
  • Hualin Zeng
  • Rongrong JiEmail author
Article
  • 272 Downloads

Abstract

With the rapid growth of multimedia information, the font library has become a part of people’s work life. Compared to the Western alphabet language, it is difficult to create new font due to huge quantity and complex shape. At present, most of the researches on automatic generation of fonts use traditional methods requiring a large number of rules and parameters set by experts, which are not widely adopted. This paper divides Chinese characters into strokes and generates new font strokes by fusing the styles of two existing font strokes and assembling them into new fonts. This approach can effectively improve the efficiency of font generation, reduce the costs of designers, and is able to inherit the style of existing fonts. In the process of learning to generate new fonts, the popular of deep learning areas, Generative Adversarial Nets has been used. Compared with the traditional method, it can generate higher quality fonts without well-designed and complex loss function.

Keywords

Least squares conditional GAN Font generation Stroke extraction 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the National Key Technology R&D Program (No. 2017YFC011300, No. 2016YFB1001503), the Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 61422210, No. 61373076, No. 61402388, and No. 61572410),the Nature Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (No. 2017 J01125).

References

  1. 1.
    Arjovsky M, Chintala S, Bottou L (2017) Wasserstein GAN. arXiv:1701.07875v2Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen X, Duan Y, Houthooft R et al (2016) InfoGAN: interpretable representation learning by information maximizing generative adversarial nets. Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chuang Y-N, Huang Z-Y, Tsai Y-L (2017) Variational grid setting network. arXiv preprint arXiv:1710.01255Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Denton E, Chintala S, Szlam A et al (2015) Deep generative image models using a Laplacian pyramid of adversarial networks. arXiv:1506.05751Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gatys LA, Ecker AS, Bethge M (2015) A neural algorithm of artistic style. arXiv:1508.06576v2Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goodfellow IJ, Pougetabadie J, Mirza M et al (2014) Generative Adversarial Nets. Adv Neural Inf Proces Syst 3:2672–2680Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gregor K, Danihelka I, Graves A et al. (2015) DRAW: a recurrent neural network for image generation. arXiv:1502.04623v2Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    He K, Zhang X, Ren S et al (2016) Deep residual learning for image recognition. 2016 IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition (CVPR), pp 770-778Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Isola P, Zhu JY, Zhou T et al (2016) Image-to-image translation with conditional adversarial networks. arXiv:1611.07004v1Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Johnson J, Alahi A, Li FF (2016) Perceptual losses for real-time style transfer and super-resolution. arXiv:1603.08155v1Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krizhevsky A, Sutskever I, Hinton GE (2012) ImageNet classification with deep convolutional neural networks. International conference on neural information processing systems. Curran associates Inc., pp 1097-1105Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li C, Jiangqing W, Bo L et al (2013) Algorithm on strokes separation for Chinese characters based on edge. Computer. Science 40(7):307–311Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lian Z, Zhao B, Xiao J (2016) Automatic generation of large-scale handwriting fonts via style learning[C]// SIGGRAPH ASIA 2016 technical briefs. ACM, pp 12Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu MY, Tuzel O (2016) Coupled generative adversarial networks. arXiv:1606.07536v2Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lyu P et al (2017) Auto-encoder guided GAN for Chinese calligraphy synthesis. arXiv preprint arXiv:1706.08789Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mao X, Li Q, Xie H et al (2017) Least squares generative adversarial networks. arXiv:1611.04076v3Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mirza M, Osindero S (2014) Conditional generative adversarial nets. arXiv:1411.1784Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mouchère H et al (2013) A dynamic time warping algorithm for recognition of multi-stroke on-line Handwriten characters. Journal of South China University of Technology 41(7).  https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-565X.2013.07.000
  19. 19.
    Myronenko A, Song X (2010) Point set registration: coherent point drift. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 32(12):2262–2275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Odena A (2016) Semi-supervised learning with generative adversarial networks. International conference on machine learning (ICML)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Odena A, Olah C, Shlens J (2016) Conditional image synthesis with auxiliary classifier GANs. arXiv:1610.09585Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Radford A, Metz L, Chintala S (2015) Unsupervised representation learning with deep convolutional generative adversarial networks. arXiv:1511.06434v2Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Simonyan K, Zisserman A (2014) Very deep convolutional networks for large-scale image recognition. arXiv:1409.1556Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Springenberg JT (2015) Unsupervised and semi-supervised learning with categorical generative adversarial networks. arXiv:1511.06390v2Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Szegedy C, Liu W, Jia Y et al (2015) Going deeper with convolutions. 2015 IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition (CVPR), pp 1-9Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Taigman Y, Polyak A, Wolf L (2016) Unsupervised cross-domain image generation. arXiv:1611.02200v1Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tan CL, Cao R (2000) A model of stroke extraction from Chinese character images. In: Proceedings 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Barcelona, Spain, vol 4, pp 368–371Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wu L, Xia Y, Zhao L et al (2017) Adversarial neural machine translation. arXiv:1704.06933v3Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Xiafe Z, Jiayan L et al (2016) Extracting Chinese calligraphy strokes using stroke crawler. Journal of Computer-Aided Design & Computer Graphics 28(2):301–309Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Xiaohu M, Yulong L, Zhigeng P et al (1999) The automatic generation for Chinese outline font and It’s transformation method. Journal of Chinese Information Processing 13(2):46–50Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Xu S, Jin T, Jiang H et al (2009) Automatic Generation of Personal Chinese Handwriting by Capturing the Characteristics of Personal Handwriting. Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, July 14–16, 2009, Pasadena, California, USA. DBLPGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhang XY, Yin F, Zhang YM et al (2017) Drawing and recognizing Chinese characters with recurrent neural network. TPAMI  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2017.2695539
  33. 33.
    Zhao S et al (1949) Predicting personalized image emotion perceptions in social networks. IEEE Trans Affect Comput 99:1–1Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhao S, Yao H, Sun X (2011) Affective video classification based on Spatio-temporal feature fusion. Sixth international conference on image and graphics IEEE computer. Society:795–800Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhao S et al (2015) Strategy for dynamic 3D depth data matching towards robust action retrieval. Neurocomputing 151:533–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhao S et al (2016) Predicting personalized emotion perceptions of social images. ACM on multimedia conference ACM, pp 1385-1394Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhao S et al (2017) Continuous probability distribution prediction of image emotions via multi-task shared sparse regression. IEEE Trans Multimedia 99:1–1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zong A, Zhu Y (2014) StrokeBank: automating personalized chinese handwriting generation twenty-eighth AAAI conference on artificial intelligence. AAAI Press, Palo Alto, pp 3024–3029Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Information Science and EngineeringXiamen UniversityXiamenChina
  2. 2.Fujian Key Laboratory of Sensing and Computing for Smart CityXiamen UniversityXiamenChina

Personalised recommendations