Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 77, Issue 16, pp 20455–20476 | Cite as

On security of image ciphers based on logic circuits and chaotic permutations

  • Mahmoud H. AnnabyEmail author
  • Hassan Ayad
  • Muhammad A. Rushdi


This paper introduces a cryptanalysis of image encryption techniques that are using chaotic scrambling and logic gates/circuits. Chaotic scrambling, as well as general permutations are considered together with reversible and irreversible gates, including XOR, Toffoli and Fredkin gates. We also investigate ciphers based on chaotic permutations and balanced logic circuits. Except for the implementation of Fredkin’s gate, these ciphers are insecure against chosen-plaintext attacks, no matter whether a permutation is applied globally on the image or via a block-by-block basis. We introduce a new cipher based on chaotic permutations, logic circuits and randomized Fourier-type transforms. The strength of the new cipher is statistically verified with standard statistical encryption measures.


Image encryption Reversible and irreversible circuits Cryptanalysis Permutation Chaotic mappings Fractional Fourier transform 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahmoud H. Annaby
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hassan Ayad
    • 1
  • Muhammad A. Rushdi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mathematics, Faculty of ScienceCairo UniversityGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical Engineering and Systems, Faculty of EngineeringCairo UniversityGizaEgypt

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