Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 76, Issue 24, pp 25767–25786 | Cite as

Inter-frame forgery detection in H.264 videos using motion and brightness gradients

  • Staffy Kingra
  • Naveen Aggarwal
  • Raahat Devender Singh


In the midst of low cost and easy-to-use multimedia editing software, which make it exceedingly simple to tamper with digital content, the domain of digital multimedia forensics has attained considerable significance. This research domain deals with production of tools and techniques that enable authentication of digital evidence prior to its use in various critical and consequential matters, such as politics, criminal investigations, defense planning. This paper presents a forensic scheme for detection of frame-based tampering in digital videos, especially those captured by surveillance cameras. Frame-based tampering, which involves insertion, removal or duplication of frames into or from video sequences, is usually very difficult to detect via simple visual inspection. Such forgeries, however, disturb the temporal correlation among successive frames of the tampered video. These disturbances, when analyzed in an appropriate manner, help reveal the evidence of forgery. The forensic technique presented in this paper relies on objective analysis of prediction residual and optical flow gradients for the detection of frame-based tampering in MPEG-2 and H.264 encoded videos. The proposed technique is also capable of determining the exact location of the forgery in the given video sequence. Results of extensive experimentation in diverse and realistic forensic set-ups show that the proposed technique can detect and locate tampering with an average accuracy of 83% and 80% respectively, regardless of the number of frames inserted, removed or duplicated.


Inter-frame forgery Frame based tampering Prediction residual Optical flow Video forgery detection 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UIET, Panjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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