Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 77, Issue 1, pp 485–502 | Cite as

Forensics for partially double compressed doctored JPEG images



Digital image forensics is required to investigate unethical use of doctored images by recovering the historic information of an image. Most of the cameras compress the image using JPEG standard. When this image is decompressed and recompressed with different quantization matrix, it becomes double compressed. Although in certain cases, e.g. after a cropping attack, the image can be recompressed with the same quantization matrix too. This JPEG double compression becomes an integral part of forgery creation. The detection and analysis of double compression in an image help the investigator to find the authenticity of an image. In this paper, a two-stage technique is proposed to estimate the first quantization matrix or steps from the partial double compressed JPEG images. In the first stage of the proposed approach, the detection of the double compressed region through JPEG ghost technique is extended to the automatic isolation of the doubly compressed part from an image. The second stage analyzes the doubly compressed part to estimate the first quantization matrix or steps. In the latter stage, an optimized filtering scheme is also proposed to cope with the effects of the error. The results of proposed scheme are evaluated by considering partial double compressed images based on the two different datasets. The partial double compressed datasets have not been considered in the previous state-of-the-art approaches. The first stage of the proposed scheme provides an average percentage accuracy of 95.45%. The second stage provides an error less than 1.5% for the first 10 DCT coefficients, hence, outperforming the existing techniques. The experimental results consider the partial double compressed images in which the recompression is done with different quantization matrix.


Image forensics Partially double compressed First quantization matrix DCT coefficient histogram JPEG 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringThapar UniversityPatialaIndia

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