Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 76, Issue 3, pp 3921–3942 | Cite as

Dual domain robust watermarking scheme using random DFRFT and least significant bit technique

Article
  • 89 Downloads

Abstract

This paper presents a novel image watermarking scheme that uses multiple-parameter discrete fractional Fourier transform (MPDFRFT) with random DFRFT and least significant bit (LSB) technique. The proposed scheme uses the LSB technique to embed watermark image in an original image, while RDFRFT and MPDFRFT are used to enhance the security of the watermarked image. The presented method aims to make the system more robust and secure at two different levels along with faster embedding and extraction process. The MPDFRFT is input data points of order DFRFT parameters. The MPDFRFT can be converted to the DFRFT when all of its order parameters have same values. On the other hand, RDFRFT is kernel matrix with random values of their DFT eigenvectors and Eigenvalues. Random magnitude and phase of its transformed output are unique features of RDFRFT that utilised to enhance security. LSB technique is preferred for watermark embedding because of its lesser effect on the image perceptibility. In proposed scheme, the cover image is converted into sub-images and MPDFRFT is applied to each sub-image. Then RDFRFT is applied in tandem to transformed sub-images in order to enhance robustness followed by watermark embedding using LSB technique. In watermark extraction process the inverse of MPDFRFT and RDFRFT is applied for reconstruction of original images along with LSB extraction mechanism. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated by using MATLAB software under various attacks and distortions. The simulation results validate that the embedding scheme presented in this work has better performance in terms of robustness along with perceptibility and security over contemporary existing schemes.

Keywords

Least significant bit Multiple parameter discrete fractional Fourier transform Random discrete fractional Fourier transform Watermark 

References

  1. 1.
    Almeida LB (1994) The fractional Fourier transform and time-frequency representations. IEEE Trans Signal Process 42(11):3084–3091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Otum HM, Samara NA (2010) A robust blind color image watermarking based on wavelet tree bit host difference selection. Signal Process 90:2498–2512CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Campisi P, Kundur D, Neri A (2004) Robust digital watermarking in the Ridglet domain. IEEE Signal Process Lett 11(10):826–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Candan C, Kutay MA, Ozaktas HM (2000) The discrete fractional Fourier transform. IEEE Trans Signal Process 48(5):1329–1337MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cui D (2009) Dual digital watermarking algorithm for image based on fractional Fourier transform. Proceedings of Second Pacific–Asia Conference on Web Mining and Web Based Applications, Wuhan, pp 51–54Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Deng C, Gao X, Li X, Tao D (2010) Local histogram based geometric invariant image watermarking. Signal Process 90:3256–3264CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dickinson BW, Steiglitz K (1982) Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the discrete Fourier transform. IEEE Trans Acoust Speech Signal Process 30(1):25–31MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Findik O, Babaoglu I, Ulker E (2010) A color image watermarking scheme based on hybrid classification method: particle swarm optimization and k-nearest neighbor algorithm. Opt Commun 283:4916–4922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ganic E, Eskicioglu AM (2005) Robust embedding of visual watermarks using DWT-SVD. J Electron Imaging 14(4):043004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ganic E, Eskicioglu AM (2005) Robust embedding of visual watermarks using discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition. J Electron Imaging 14(4):043004–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Huang F, Guan ZH (2004) A hybrid SVD-DCT watermarking method based on LPSNR. Pattern Recogn Lett 25:1769–1775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kundur D, Hatzinakos D (2004) Towards robust logo watermarking using multi-resolution image fusion. IEEE Trans Multimedia 6:185–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lagzian S, Soryani M, Fathy M (2011) A new robust watermarking scheme based on RDWT–SVD. Int J Intell Inform Process 2(1):22–9Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lagzian S, Soryani M, Fathy M (2011) Robust watermarking scheme based on RDWT–SVD: embedding data in all subbands. International symposium on artificial intelligence and signal processing (AISP). pp. 48–52Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lai CC (2011) An improved SVD-based watermarking scheme using human visual characteristics. Optics Commun 284:938–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lai CC, Tsai CC (2010) Digital image watermarking using discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 59(11):3060–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lang J, Sun J-Y, Yang W-F (2012) A digital watermarking algorithm based on discrete fractional fourier transformation. International Conference on Computer Science and Service System, pp. 692–694Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lang J, Zhang Z-g (2014) Blind digital watermarking method in the fractional Fourier transform domain. Opt Lasers Eng 53:112–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lin SD, Shie SC, Guo JY (2010) Improving the robustness of DCT-based image watermarking against JPEG compression. Comput Stand Interfaces 32:54–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lin WH, Wang YR, Horng SJ (2009) A wavelet-tree-based watermarking method using distance vector of binary cluster. Expert Syst Appl 36:9869–9878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu Z, Liu S (2007) Randomization of the Fourier transform. Opt Lett 32:478–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Makbol NM, Khoo BE (2013) Robust blind image watermarking scheme based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transform and Singular Value Decomposition. AEU Int J Electron Commun 67:102–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mohammad AA, Alhaj A, Shaltaf S (2008) An improved SVD-based watermarking scheme for protecting rightful ownership. Signal Process 88:2158–2180CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Namias V (1980) The fractional order Fourier transform and its application to quantum mechanics. IMA J Appl Math 25(3):241–265MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ni R, Ruan Q, Zhao Y (2008) Pinpoint authentication watermarking based on a chaotic system. Forensic Sci Int 179:54–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nishchal NK (2009) Optical image watermarking using fractional Fourier transform. J Opt 38(1):22–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pandey R, Singh AK, Kumar B, Mohan A (2016) Iris based secure NROI multiple eye image watermarking for teleophthalmology. Tools Appl 1–17. doi:10.1007/s11042-016-3536-6
  28. 28.
    Patra JC, Phua JE, Bornand C (2010) A novel DCT domain CRT-based watermarking scheme for image authentication surviving JPEG compression. Digital Signal Processing 20:1597–1611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pei SC, Hsue WL (2009) The random discrete fractional Fourier transform. IEEE Signal Process Lett 16(12):1015–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pei SC, Hsue WL (2006) The multiple-parameter discrete fractional Fourier transform. IEEE Signal Process Lett 13(6):329–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pei SC, Yeh MH (1997) Improved discrete fractional Fourier transform. Opt Lett 22(14):1047–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pei SC, Yeh MH, Tseng CC (1999) Discrete fractional Fourier transform based on orthogonal projections. IEEE Trans Signal Process 47:1335–1348MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rastegar S, Namazi F, Yaghmaie K, Aliabadian A (2011) Hybrid watermarking algorithm based on singular value decomposition and radon transform. AEU Int J Electron Commun 65(7):658–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sahlin A, Ozaktas HM, Mendlovic D (1995) Optical implementation of the two-dimensional fractional Fourier transform with different orders in the two dimensions. Elsevier Opt Commun 120(3–4):134–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Savelonas MA, Chountasis S (2010) Noise-resistant watermarking in the fractional Fourier domain utilizing moment-based image representation. Signal Process 90:2521–2528CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sharma D, Saxena R, Singh N (2014) Robust watermarking against geometric attacks using multiple parameter discrete fractional Fourier transform and least significant bit. Int J Secur Appl 8(5):439–456Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Singh AK (2016) Improved hybrid algorithm for robust and imperceptible multiple watermarking using digital images. Multimedia Tools Appl 1–18. doi:10.1007/s11042-016-3514-z
  38. 38.
    Singh AK, Dave M, Mohan A (2014) Wavelet based image watermarking: futuristic concepts in information security. Proc Natl Acad Sci India Sect A Phys Sci 84(3):345–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Singh AK, Dave M, Mohan A (2014) Hybrid technique for robust and imperceptible image watermarking in DWT- DCT-SVD domain. Natl Acad Sci Lett 37(4):351–358. doi:10.1007/s40009-014-0241-8#_blank CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Singh AK, Dave M, Mohan A (2015) Robust and secure multiple watermarking in wavelet domain. J Med Imaging Health Inf 5(2):406–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Singh AK, Dave M, Mohan A (2016) Hybrid technique for robust and imperceptible multiple watermarking using medical images. Multimedia Tools Appl 75:8381–8401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Singh AK, Kumar B, Dave M, Mohan A (2015) Multiple watermarking on medical images using selective discrete wavelet transform coefficients. J Med Imaging Health Inf 5(3):607–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Singh AK, Kumar B, Dave M, Mohan A (2015) Robust and imperceptible dual watermarking for telemedicine applications. Wirel Pers Commun 80(4):1415–1433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sun J-Y, Lang J, Miao CQ, Yang N, Wang S (2012) A digital watermarking algorithm based on hyperchaos and discrete fractional Fourier transform. 5th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP 2012), pp. 553–556Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tang L-L, Huang CT, Pan J-S, Liu C-Y (2015) Dual watermarking algorithm based on the fractional Fourier transform. Multimedia Tools Appl 74(12):4397–4413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tirkel A, Rankin G, Schyndel RV, Ho W, Mee N, Osborne C (1993) Electronic watermark. In Proceedings of DICTA, 666–672Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jaypee University of Engineering and TechnologyRaghogarhIndia
  2. 2.Jaypee UniversityAnupshahrIndia

Personalised recommendations