Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 76, Issue 3, pp 3361–3382 | Cite as

Multiple predictors hiding scheme using asymmetric histograms

  • Tzu-Chuen Lu
  • Chang-Mu Chen
  • Mei-Chen Lin
  • Ying-Hsuan Huang


In recent years, many data hiding techniques have been proposed, and they can be generally classified into two types according to the reversibility of the image; these two types are reversible and irreversible data hiding. This study focused on reversible data hiding, which makes recovering the cover image possible after the secret data has been extracted. In 2013, Chen et al. proposed an asymmetric-histogram reversible data hiding method. In their scheme, two prediction error histograms (maximum and minimum error histograms) were used to embed the secret message. Two histograms were shifted in opposite directions. Hence, some stego-pixels were shifted to their original values. The complementary embedding strategy is effective. However, the predictor in the method is rough. Only neighboring pixels were used to generate the prediction errors, thereby resulting in poor prediction efficiency. To enhance the prediction efficiency, this paper combines several well-known predictors such as gradient adjusted gap (GAP), median edge detect, and interpolation by neighboring pixel (INP) to generate prediction errors. Different predictors along with the asymmetric-histogram method can achieve better results. The predictor GAP used more neighboring pixels to obtain the prediction value; therefore, it is suitable for complex images. However, the predictor INP only considers that closer pixels can achieve great results for smooth images. Hence, the proposed scheme combines GAP and asymmetric histogram for complex images. However, the predictor INP along with asymmetric histogram is used for smooth images. Experimental results showed that the PSNR value of the proposed method is greater than that of the asymmetric-histogram shifting method and other recent approaches.


Reversible data hiding Gradient adjusted gap Median edge detect Asymmetric histogram 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information ManagementChaoyang University of TechnologyTaichungTaiwan
  2. 2.Aeronautical Research LaboratoryNational Chung-Shan Institute of Science and TechnologyTaiwanRepublic of China

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