Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 76, Issue 7, pp 9829–9854 | Cite as

Occlusion handling in outdoors augmented reality games

  • Vlasios Kasapakis
  • Damianos Gavalas


The use of augmented reality (AR) becomes increasingly common in mobile game development as a means of enhancing the players’ view of the physical world through computer-generated graphical information. A situation often encountered in AR applications is the -partial or full- occlusion of virtual objects by physical artifacts; if not appropriately handled, the visualization of occluded objects often misleads users’ perception. This paper introduces three alternative Geolocative Raycasting techniques aiming at assisting developers of outdoors AR games in generating a realistic field of view (FoV) for the players by integrating real time building recognition, so as to address the occlusion problem. Our geolocative raycasting methods have been applied in the location-based, AR game Order Elimination, which utilizes publicly and freely available building information to calculate the players FoV in real-time. The proposed algorithms are applicable to a variety of sensor-based AR applications and portable to any real setting, provided that sufficient topographical data exist. The three FoV determination methods have been tested with respect to several performance parameters demonstrating that real-time FoV rendering is feasible by modest mobile devices, even under stress conditions. A user evaluation study revealed that the consideration of buildings for determining the FoV in AR pervasive games can increase the quality of experience of players when compared with standard FoV generation methods.


Pervasive games Augmented reality Occlusion Field of view Line of sight Raycasting OSM Performance tests 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cultural Technology and CommunicationUniversity of the AegeanMytileneGreece

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