Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 76, Issue 6, pp 8517–8545 | Cite as

A prediction based reversible image watermarking in Hadamard domain

  • Zahra Pakdaman
  • Saeid Saryazdi
  • Hossein Nezamabadi-pour


Reversible watermarking is a special kind of the lossless data hiding techniques which allows lossless recovering of both the watermark and the host image. In this paper, a new reversible watermarking scheme based on error prediction in Hadamard domain is presented. In the proposed method, the original image is divided into blocks and transformed to Hadamard domain. If a block is in a smooth area, its AC coefficients will be predicted using a linear predictor function. Then the value of error between the original and the predicted coefficient is computed. At last, a watermark bit will be embedded in the error. To reduce the error value, an Adaline neural network is used to determine coefficients of the predictor function. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides higher capacity and quality in comparison to some well-known methods.


Reversible watermarking Reversible Hadamard transform Prediction error Adaline neural network 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zahra Pakdaman
    • 1
  • Saeid Saryazdi
    • 1
  • Hossein Nezamabadi-pour
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringShahid Bahonar University of KermanKermanIran

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