Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 76, Issue 6, pp 8399–8421 | Cite as

Detecting video frame rate up-conversion based on frame-level analysis of average texture variation

  • Min Xia
  • Gaobo Yang
  • Leida Li
  • Ran Li
  • Xingming Sun


Frame rate up-conversion (FRUC) refers to frame interpolation between adjacent video frames to increase the motion continuity of low frame rate video, which can improve the visual quality on hand-held displays. However, FRUC can also be used for video forgery purposes such as splicing two videos with different frame-rates. We found that most FRUC approaches introduce visual artifacts into texture regions of interpolated frames. Based on this observation, a two-stage blind detection approach is proposed for video FRUC based on the frame-level analysis of average texture variation (ATV). First, the ATV value is computed for each frame to obtain an ATV curve of candidate video. Second, the ATV curve is further processed to highlight its periodic property, which indicates the existence of FRUC operation and further estimates the original frame rate. Thus, the positions of interpolated frames can be inferred as well. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed forensics approach is efficient and effective for the detection of existing typical FRUC approaches such as linear frame averaging and motion-compensated interpolation (MCI). The detection performance is superior to the existing approaches in terms of time efficiency and detection accuracy.


Digital video forensics Frame-rate up-conversion (FRUC) Motion compensated interpolation (MCI) Average texture variation (ATV) 



This work is supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61379143, 61232016, 61572183, U1405254), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (SRFDP) (20120161110014) and the S&T Program of Xuzhou City (XM13B119) and the PAPD fund. This paper is also supported in part by Southwest University for Nationalities for the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (82000742). The authors appreciate the nice help from Mr Moses Odero for improving the English usages.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Min Xia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gaobo Yang
    • 1
  • Leida Li
    • 3
  • Ran Li
    • 4
  • Xingming Sun
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Information Science and EngineeringHunan UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.College of Electrical and Information EngineeringSouthwest University for NationalitiesChengduChina
  3. 3.School of Information and Electrical EngineeringChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina
  4. 4.School of Computer and Information TechnologyXinyang Normal UniversityXinyangChina
  5. 5.School of Computer and SoftwareNanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNangjingChina

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