Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 76, Issue 5, pp 7519–7534 | Cite as

QRcode, hashtag or audio watermark? A case study on second screening

  • Alan César Belo Angeluci
  • Gustavo Moreira Calixto
  • Leire Mara Bevilaqua
  • Gleice Bernardini
  • Maria Cristina Gobbi


Combining television and a second, web-connected screen, is challenging both in technical and production content issues, as they can influence users’ engagement with the content. The case study presented in this paper aims to discuss how the use of different content recognition techniques for TV set and mobile devices synchronization can impact for better or worse the users’ interactive experience. From a triangulation method approach, using a prototype, quantitative and qualitative questionnaires and focus groups, user test sessions were carried out in order to collect perceptions and reactions from participants using variations of QRcode, hashtag and audio watermark markers when second screening. Data analysis showed that a key factor for a fruitful content recognition for dual screening is not only the seamless communication by itself, but the influence level of each specific characteristics of a marker, such as size of images, number of characters and noises.


Second screen TV QRcode Hashtag Audio watermark Content recognition 


  1. 1.
    Angeluci ACB (2013) From ‘Gads’ to ‘Apps’: the key challenges of post-web internet era. Revista Geminis 1(2 Ano 4):75–88Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arnold M (2000) Audio watermarking: features, applications, and algorithms. IEEE Int Conf Multimedia Expo (II) 1013–1016Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bestbuy TV buying guide. Available at
  4. 4.
    Boney L, Tewfik AH, Hamdy KN (1996) Digital watermarks for audio signals. In: Multimedia Computing and Systems, 1996, Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on. IEEE 473–480Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown A et al (2014) HCI over multiple screens. In: CHI’14 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM 665–674Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bruns A (2008) Blogs, Wikipedia, second life, and beyond: from production to produsage. Peter LangGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Caldas CHS, De Oliveira BJ, Neto ON (2015) Dos regimes aos gradientes de interação no consumo televisivo: superstar, um reality show nascido para ser interativo. Verso Reverso 29(70):24–34Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Calixto GM et al (2014) Effectiveness analysis of audio watermark tags for IPTV second screen applications and synchronization. In: Telecommunications Symposium (ITS), 2014 International. IEEE 1–5Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cameron J, Geidner N (2014) Something old, something new, something borrowed from something blue: Experiments on dual viewing TV and Twitter. J Broadcast Electron Media 58(3)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Das D et al (2011) An interactive system using digital broadcasting and quick response code. In: Consumer Electronics (ISCE), 2011 I.E. 15th International Symposium on. IEEE 397–400Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Doughty M, Rowland D, Lawson S (2011) Co-viewing live TV with digital backchannel streams. In: Proceedings of the 9th international interactive conference on Interactive television. ACM 141–144Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Doughty M, Rowland D, Lawson S (2012) Who is on your sofa?: TV audience communities and second screening social networks. In: Proceedings of the 10th European conference on Interactive TV and video. ACM 79–86Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Duong NQK, Howson C, Legallais Y (2012) Fast second screen TV synchronization combining audio fingerprint technique and generalized cross correlation. In: Consumer Electronics-Berlin (ICCE-Berlin), 2012 I.E. International Conference on. IEEE 241–244Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Galindo RF, Fernández BE, Alameda GD (2014) Análisis del uso e interacción con aplicaciones second screen en TV Social en España. Cuadernos Inf (35)159–175Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Giglietto F, Selva D (2014) Second screen and participation: a content analysis on a full season dataset of tweets. J Commun 64(2):260–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hirsch E, Silverstone R (Ed.) (2003) Consuming technologies: media and information in domestic spaces. RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Holmes ME, Josephson S, Carney RE (2012) Visual attention to television programs with a second-screen application. Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications. ACM 397–400Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    How to choose the right screen size. Available at
  19. 19.
    Howson C et al (2011) Second screen TV synchronization. In: Consumer Electronics-Berlin (ICCE-Berlin), 2011 I.E. International Conference on. IEEE 361–365Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jenkins H (2009) Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: media education for the 21st century. Mit PressGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Katz E, Blumler JG (1999) GUREVITCH, Michael. Utilization of mass communication by the individual. Sources notable selections in mass media, p. 51–59Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lemma A et al (2008) Watermarking for content aware intelligent toys. In: 2008 Second International Conference on Electrical EngineeringGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lexicon: Second Screen Society. Available at
  24. 24.
    The right distance to sit from your TV. Available at
  25. 25.
    Wohn DY, Eun-Kyung NA (2011) Tweeting about TV: sharing television viewing experiences via social media message streams. First Monday (16)3Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ziegler C (2013) Second screen for HbbTV—automatic application launch and app-to-app communication enabling novel TV programme related second-screen scenarios. In: Consumer Electronics Berlin (ICCE-Berlin), 2013. ICCEBerlin 2013. IEEE Third International Conference on. IEEE 1–5Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan César Belo Angeluci
    • 1
  • Gustavo Moreira Calixto
    • 2
  • Leire Mara Bevilaqua
    • 3
  • Gleice Bernardini
    • 4
  • Maria Cristina Gobbi
    • 4
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em ComunicaçãoUniversidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul, USCSSão Caetano do SulBrazil
  2. 2.Centro Universitário Senac - Santo AmaroSanto AmaroBrazil
  3. 3.Televisão Universitária UNESPBauruBrazil
  4. 4.Programa de Pós-Graduação em ComunicaçãoUniversidade Estadual Paulista, UNESPBauruBrazil

Personalised recommendations