Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 76, Issue 5, pp 7445–7471 | Cite as

Keyless dynamic optimal multi-bit image steganography using energetic pixels

  • Goutam Paul
  • Ian Davidson
  • Imon Mukherjee
  • S. S. Ravi


Steganography plays an important role to hide data in apparently innocuous media (e.g., image, audio, video, text, etc.). Since most of the steganographic algorithms do not consider the image content while locating the message bearing pixels, in most occasions, they are bound to defeat against visual, structural and statistical attacks. We distribute the message bits in selective parts of a cover image, particularly in the ‘busy’ part, i.e., where a perceptible change in the pixel intensity occurs, using a variety of embedding schemes. The energetic pixels, as per our definition, capture this notion of ‘busy’ part of the image and our data hiding schemes keep the energy function invariant between the cover image and its stego version for lossless data extraction. The schemes do not need to share any key/seed or a pass-phrase between the sender and the receiver. We show that our proposed algorithms provide imperceptible visual distortions for embedding data at most 4 bits per pixels with high embedding efficiencies and can withstand popular first order statistical tests.


Energetic pixels Data hiding Embedding capacity Ising energy Multibit steganography 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Goutam Paul
    • 1
  • Ian Davidson
    • 2
  • Imon Mukherjee
    • 3
  • S. S. Ravi
    • 4
  1. 1.Cryptology and Security Research Unit (CSRU), R. C. Bose Centre for Cryptology and SecurityIndian Statistical InstituteKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Computer Science & EngineeringSt. Thomas’ College of Engineering & TechnologyKolkataIndia
  4. 4.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity at AlbanySunyUSA

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