Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 76, Issue 2, pp 1857–1874 | Cite as

ILSBMR: improved LSBMR (ILSBMR) method

  • Sajad Nikseresht
  • Mashallah Abbasi Dezfouli
  • Seyed.Enayatallah Alavi


The Least Significant Bit Matching Revisited (LSBMR) is among the most commonly used methods on image steganography, aiming to make only smaller changes in an image. While security is considered as one of the basic evaluation criteria for steganography techniques and notably, LSBMR can be easily recognized due to its well-known structure, it is important to find a way to help improve this approach so that it might cause less variation in the image and also increase security. To this end, the current paper deploys divided blocks of the original cover image and a selection of the best layout to embed secret message bits from each block into color images by using LSBMR. The simulation results indicate that this improved method makes small changes in the image and increases its security, compared to the LSBMR technique.


Steganography Transparency Security Embedding capacity 


  1. 1.
    Ahsan K, Kundur D (2002) Practical data hiding in TCP/IP. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Multimedia Security at ACM Multimedia, Juan-les-Pins on the French Riviera, 6 Dec 2002Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chan C-S, Chang C-Y (2009) An information hiding scheme by applying the dynamic programming strategy to LSB matching revisited. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication, Suwon, Korea, 15–16 Jan 2009, pp 246–250Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen W-J, Chang C-C, Le T (2010) High payload steganography mechanism using hybrid edge detector. Expert Syst Appl 37:3292–3301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dezfouli MA, Nikseresht S, Alavi SE (2013) A new image steganography method based on pixel neighbors and 6 most significant Bit (MSB) compare. Adv Comput Sci Int J 2:157–162Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fridrich J, Goljan M, Du R (2001) Reliable detection of LSB steganography in color and grayscale images. In: Proceedings of the 2001 workshop on Multimedia and security: new challenges, Ottawa, Canada, Oct 2001, pp 27–30Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fridrich J et al. (2003) Higher-order statistical steganalysis of palette images. In: Proceedings of the Electronic Imaging SPIE Santa Clara, CA, Jan 2003, pp 178–190Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lee K et al. (2006) Category attack for LSB steganalysis of JPEG images. In: Shi YQ, Jeon B (eds) Digital watermarking, lecture notes in computer science, vol 4283. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 35–48Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lerch-Hostalot D, Megías D (2013) LSB matching steganalysis based on patterns of pixel differences and random embedding. Comput Secur 32:192–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mielikainen J (2006) LSB matching revisited. IEEE Signal Process Lett 13:285–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Papapanagiotou K, Kellinis E, Marias G, Georgiadis P (2005) Alternatives for multimedia messaging system steganography. In: Hao Y et al (eds) Computational intelligence and security, lecture notes in computer science, vol 3802. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 589–596Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rabah K (2004) Steganography-the art of hiding data. Inf Technol J 3:245–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sharp T (2001) An implementation of key-based digital signal steganography. In: Moskowitz I (ed) Information hiding, lecture notes in computer science, vol 2137. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 13–26Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Swathi B, Shalini K, Prasanthi KN (2013) A review on steganography using images. Asian J Comput Sci Inf Technol 2:234–237Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Westfeld A, Pfitzmann A (2000) Attacks on steganographic systems. In: Pfitzmann A (ed) Information hiding, lecture notes in computer science, vol 1768. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 61–76Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xu H, Wang J, Kim HJ (2010) Near-optimal solution to pair-wise LSB matching via an immune programming strategy. Inf Sci 180:1201–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sajad Nikseresht
    • 1
  • Mashallah Abbasi Dezfouli
    • 1
  • Seyed.Enayatallah Alavi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer, College of Computer, Ahvaz BranchIslamic Azad UniversityAhvazIran
  2. 2.Department of Computer EngineeringShahid Chamran University of AhwazAhwazIran

Personalised recommendations